Abstract

Infrared measurements in the 8–14-μm spectral region were made of two coal-fired power plant plumes and area haze in the Four Corners region of New Mexico from 1 to 7 Nov. 1980. The layer transmittance, optical depth, and volume extinction coefficient derived from measurements on four nonconsecutive days show the effects of the plumes on the IR optical properties of the atmosphere. The average contribution of the plume alone to the IR extinction coefficient was 74% at the Four Corners plant; the background haze contributed 7–11%. More efficient particulate emission control at the San Juan power plant reduced the average contribution of its plume to 57% of the extinction coefficient. The haze contributed an average of 16%. The results show an increase with time of the haze bulk extinction coefficient during a persistent anticyclonic synoptic situation. Extinction coefficients of the haze showed a linearity with particulate loading, which led to estimates of IR volume extinctions of the free troposphere from aerosol measurements.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 12, 564 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Fischer, Tellus 28, 266 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Grassl, Tellus 25, 386 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. P. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, C. B. Levoy, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 28 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, Am. Sci. 68, 268 (1980).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. G. W. Paltridge, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4053 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. R. Fleming, S. K. Cox, J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 2182 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. K. Cox, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 287 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. M. Kuhn, Opt. Lett. 6, 24 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Mamane, R. F. Pueschel, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 779 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. F. Pueschel, C. C. Van Valin, Atmos. Environ. 12, 307 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. P. Stearns, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, Meteorol. Rundsch. 35, 76 (1982).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1982 (1)

L. P. Stearns, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, Meteorol. Rundsch. 35, 76 (1982).

1981 (1)

1980 (2)

Y. Mamane, R. F. Pueschel, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, Am. Sci. 68, 268 (1980).

1979 (2)

E. W. Barrett, F. P. Parungo, R. F. Pueschel, Meteorol. Rundsch. 32, 136 (1979).

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Atmos. Environ. 13, 169 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. F. Pueschel, C. C. Van Valin, Atmos. Environ. 12, 307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

K. Fischer, Tellus 28, 266 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, C. B. Levoy, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 28 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Cox, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 287 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

G. W. Paltridge, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4053 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Fleming, S. K. Cox, J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 2182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

1971 (1)

P. A. Davis, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1314 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, H. Horvath, Atmos. Environ. 2, 455 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T. P.

T. P. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, C. B. Levoy, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 28 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ahlquist, N. C.

R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, H. Horvath, Atmos. Environ. 2, 455 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, E. W.

L. P. Stearns, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, Meteorol. Rundsch. 35, 76 (1982).

E. W. Barrett, F. P. Parungo, R. F. Pueschel, Meteorol. Rundsch. 32, 136 (1979).

Benedict, W. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. F. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (1973).

Burch, D. E.

D. E. Burch, “Semiannual Technical Report: Investigation of the Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Gasses,” Aeroneutronic Report U-4784, ASTLA(AD 702117) (1972).

Burch, D. F.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. F. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (1973).

Calfee, R. F.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. F. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (1973).

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, H. Horvath, Atmos. Environ. 2, 455 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Atmos. Environ. 13, 169 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. F. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (1973).

Cox, S. K.

S. K. Cox, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 287 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Fleming, S. K. Cox, J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 2182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P. A.

P. A. Davis, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1314 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, K.

K. Fischer, Tellus 28, 266 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. R.

J. R. Fleming, S. K. Cox, J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 2182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fox, K.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. F. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (1973).

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. F. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (1973).

Gergen, J.

J. Gergen, “Blackness of Clouds as Determined from Radiation Measurements,” Tech. Rep. Atmospheric Physics Program, School of Physics, U. Minnesota (1958), 92 pp.

Grassl, H.

H. Grassl, Tellus 25, 386 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, H.

R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, H. Horvath, Atmos. Environ. 2, 455 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kiehl, J. T.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Atmos. Environ. 13, 169 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ko, M. K. W.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Atmos. Environ. 13, 169 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, P. M.

Levoy, C. B.

T. P. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, C. B. Levoy, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 28 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

T. P. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, C. B. Levoy, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 28 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mamane, Y.

Y. Mamane, R. F. Pueschel, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. F. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (1973).

Paltridge, G. W.

G. W. Paltridge, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4053 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Parungo, F. P.

E. W. Barrett, F. P. Parungo, R. F. Pueschel, Meteorol. Rundsch. 32, 136 (1979).

Pollack, J. B.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, Am. Sci. 68, 268 (1980).

Pueschel, R. F.

L. P. Stearns, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, Meteorol. Rundsch. 35, 76 (1982).

Y. Mamane, R. F. Pueschel, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Barrett, F. P. Parungo, R. F. Pueschel, Meteorol. Rundsch. 32, 136 (1979).

R. F. Pueschel, C. C. Van Valin, Atmos. Environ. 12, 307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. F. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (1973).

Stearns, L. P.

L. P. Stearns, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, Meteorol. Rundsch. 35, 76 (1982).

Toon, O. B.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, Am. Sci. 68, 268 (1980).

Van Valin, C. C.

R. F. Pueschel, C. C. Van Valin, Atmos. Environ. 12, 307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F. E.

Am. Sci. (1)

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, Am. Sci. 68, 268 (1980).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Environ. (3)

R. F. Pueschel, C. C. Van Valin, Atmos. Environ. 12, 307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Atmos. Environ. 13, 169 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, H. Horvath, Atmos. Environ. 2, 455 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (3)

T. P. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, C. B. Levoy, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 28 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mamane, R. F. Pueschel, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 779 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Davis, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1314 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

J. R. Fleming, S. K. Cox, J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 2182 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Cox, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 287 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

G. W. Paltridge, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4053 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Meteorol. Rundsch. (2)

L. P. Stearns, E. W. Barrett, R. F. Pueschel, Meteorol. Rundsch. 35, 76 (1982).

E. W. Barrett, F. P. Parungo, R. F. Pueschel, Meteorol. Rundsch. 32, 136 (1979).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Tellus (2)

K. Fischer, Tellus 28, 266 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Grassl, Tellus 25, 386 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Gergen, “Blackness of Clouds as Determined from Radiation Measurements,” Tech. Rep. Atmospheric Physics Program, School of Physics, U. Minnesota (1958), 92 pp.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. F. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (1973).

D. E. Burch, “Semiannual Technical Report: Investigation of the Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Gasses,” Aeroneutronic Report U-4784, ASTLA(AD 702117) (1972).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission function of the radiometer filter and lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

6 Nov. 1980 synoptic map, 0730 LST, showing location of sounding stations: Albuquerque, N.M. (ABQ); Winslow, Ariz. (INW); and Grand Junction, Colo. (GJT). Field site is denoted by *.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature and dew point profiles made on the aircraft and averaged from soundings on 6 Nov. 1980.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature and dew point profiles as in Fig. 3 for 7 Nov. 1980.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of an aerosol cloud showing optical properties.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Computer plot of aerosol spectrometer data taken within (curve a) and outside the plume of the San Juan generating station. Q is dN/d logr = Arα exp(−βrγ) cm3. R is particle radius in micrometers.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Infrared (8–14-μm) Optical Properties of the Atmosphere in the Vicinity of Power Plant Operations

Tables Icon

Table II Statistics of Aerosol Spectra from Within and Outside the Plume of the San Juan Generating Station near Farmington, N.M.

Tables Icon

Table III Particulate Mass Loadings and Infrared 8–14-μm Extinction Within and Outside Plumes In the Four Corner Region.

Tables Icon

Table IV Measured Particulate Loadings in the Atmosphere In the Four Corner Region as Functions of Altitude and Correspondent Infrared Extinction

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N B = ( 1 - ) N B * + σ T C 4 ,
N T = ( 1 - ) N T * + σ T C 4 ,
N B = τ N T + Δ ρ N T + ( 1 - τ - Δ ρ ) N C + Δ ρ N B ,
N T = τ N B + Δ ρ N B + ( 1 - τ - Δ ρ ) N C + Δ ρ N T ) .
τ = [ ( N B - N C ) + Δ ρ ( N T + N C + N B ) ] / ( N T - N C ) ,
τ = [ ( N T - N C ) + Δ ρ ( N B + N C + N T ) ] / ( N B - N C ) .
Δ ρ = ( N T - N C ) ( N T - N C ) - ( N B - N C ) ( N B - N C ) ( N T + N C + N B ) ( N B + N T - 2 N C ) .
τ tot = exp z 1 z 2 - K Δ ν d z ,
- K Δ ν Δ z = ln τ ,
K Δ ν = - ln τ / Δ z .

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