Abstract

Raman spectroscopy reveals crystallographic structure information about optical coatings much faster and with thinner specimens than conventional x-ray diffraction analysis. Spectra of low-absorption TiO2 coatings were measured as a function of thickness from 55 to 831 nm. A minimum of 831 nm was required for good SNR and minimization of substrate effects. Measurements made with interference-enhanced trilayer structures showed increased detectability to layer thicknesses near 50 nm. Counting times were typically 400 sec. Spectra obtained by both methods agree well with reported data for the anatase structural modification of bulk TiO2. The trilayer method is preferred because the thickness examined is closest to that encountered in practical multilayer optical coatings.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. T. Pawlewicz, R. Busch, Thin Solid Films 63, 251 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, Thin Solid Films 73, 169 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. T. Pawlewicz, N. Laegreid, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 156 (1978).
  4. R. J. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hays, R. A. Street, Phys. Rev. B 18, 6900 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Nemanich, C. C. Tsai, G. A. N. Connell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 273 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. W. DeBell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 2 (1978).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 6–124.
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    [CrossRef]
  10. I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 307, 407 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

1980

R. J. Nemanich, C. C. Tsai, G. A. N. Connell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 273 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, Thin Solid Films 73, 169 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

W. T. Pawlewicz, R. Busch, Thin Solid Films 63, 251 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

W. T. Pawlewicz, N. Laegreid, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 156 (1978).

R. J. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hays, R. A. Street, Phys. Rev. B 18, 6900 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. W. DeBell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 2 (1978).

1976

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972

1968

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 307, 407 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, I. R.

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 307, 407 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Busch, R.

W. T. Pawlewicz, R. Busch, Thin Solid Films 63, 251 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Capwell, R. J.

Connell, G. A. N.

R. J. Nemanich, C. C. Tsai, G. A. N. Connell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 273 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hays, R. A. Street, Phys. Rev. B 18, 6900 (1978).
[CrossRef]

De Sesa, M. A.

DeBell, G. W.

G. W. DeBell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 2 (1978).

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gilson, T. R.

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 307, 407 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hays, D. D.

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, Thin Solid Films 73, 169 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hays, T. M.

R. J. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hays, R. A. Street, Phys. Rev. B 18, 6900 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Laegreid, N.

W. T. Pawlewicz, N. Laegreid, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 156 (1978).

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. M.

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, Thin Solid Films 73, 169 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nemanich, R. J.

R. J. Nemanich, C. C. Tsai, G. A. N. Connell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 273 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hays, R. A. Street, Phys. Rev. B 18, 6900 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pawlewicz, W. T.

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, Thin Solid Films 73, 169 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Pawlewicz, R. Busch, Thin Solid Films 63, 251 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Pawlewicz, N. Laegreid, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 156 (1978).

Spagnolo, F.

Street, R. A.

R. J. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hays, R. A. Street, Phys. Rev. B 18, 6900 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. C.

R. J. Nemanich, C. C. Tsai, G. A. N. Connell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 273 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

J. Phys. E

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, J. P. Fillard, J. Phys. E 9, 1002 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

R. J. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hays, R. A. Street, Phys. Rev. B 18, 6900 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. J. Nemanich, C. C. Tsai, G. A. N. Connell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 273 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 307, 407 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

G. W. DeBell, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 2 (1978).

W. T. Pawlewicz, N. Laegreid, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 156 (1978).

Thin Solid Films

W. T. Pawlewicz, R. Busch, Thin Solid Films 63, 251 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Pawlewicz, D. D. Hays, P. M. Martin, Thin Solid Films 73, 169 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other

American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 6–124.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Raman spectra for three single-layer TiO2 coatings on fused silica substrates compared with spectrum for bulk anatase TiO2 powder: A, 147 nm thick; B, 427 nm thick; C, 831 nm thick; and D, powder.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Square root dependence of 143-cm−1 anatase band intensity on coating thickness, ●. Intensity enhancement from a thin deposited TiO2 film in a trilayer structure is plotted for comparison, ■.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman spectra for A, 55-nm thick single-layer TiO2 coating on fused silica substrate; B, 51-nm thick TiO2 coating in interference-enhanced trilayer; and C, bulk anatase TiO2 powder.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Raman Peaks (cm−1) and Relative Intensities for Various Forms of Anatase TiO2

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