Abstract

A technique has been developed for accurately simulating visual scotomas in subjects with normal vision. To accomplish this, the image of an opaque or partially transmitting mask is stabilized on a fixed region of the subject’s retina, while the image of the visual world that falls everywhere else on the retina moves about in the normal manner controlled by the subject’s eye movements. The mask that produces the scotoma is located in a plane conjugate to the retina and is stabilized by signals from a dual-Purkinje-image eyetracker, while the stimulus image makes two passes through the same optical system, but in opposite directions, thereby arriving at the retina in its original unstabilized state. Artificial scotomas generated in this way can be of any desired size, shape, density, and retinal location. The device promises to be a powerful tool for both basic and clinical research.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. London 148, 574 (1959).
  2. R. W. Ditchburn, Eye Movements and Visual Perception (Clarendon, Oxford, 1973).
  3. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1266 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. H. Kelly, Science, 214, 1257 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. A. Riggs, F. Ratliff, J. C. Cornsweet, T. N. Cornsweet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 495 (1953).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. I. Yarbus, Eye Movements and Vision (Plenum, New York, 1967).
  7. H. D. Crane, C. M. Steele, Appl. Opt. 17, 691 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. D. Crane, T. P. Piantanida, “On Seeing Reddish-Green and Yellowish-Blue,” Science, in press.
  9. J. L. Brown, “The Structure of the Visual System,” in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2.
  10. D. H. Kelly, Opt. Lett. 2, 79 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. D. Crane, M. R. Clark, Appl. Opt. 17, 706 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 432 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. F. Hess, R. J. Jacobs, A. Vingrys, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 610 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Mitra, J. Price, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 225 (1982).
  15. K. E. Higgins, R. C. Caruso, N. J. Coletta, F. M. De Monasterio, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 252 (1982).

1982

D. H. Kelly, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 432 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mitra, J. Price, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 225 (1982).

K. E. Higgins, R. C. Caruso, N. J. Coletta, F. M. De Monasterio, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 252 (1982).

1981

D. H. Kelly, Science, 214, 1257 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

1978

1959

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. London 148, 574 (1959).

1953

Brown, J. L.

J. L. Brown, “The Structure of the Visual System,” in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2.

Caruso, R. C.

K. E. Higgins, R. C. Caruso, N. J. Coletta, F. M. De Monasterio, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 252 (1982).

Clark, M. R.

Coletta, N. J.

K. E. Higgins, R. C. Caruso, N. J. Coletta, F. M. De Monasterio, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 252 (1982).

Cornsweet, J. C.

Cornsweet, T. N.

Crane, H. D.

H. D. Crane, M. R. Clark, Appl. Opt. 17, 706 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Crane, C. M. Steele, Appl. Opt. 17, 691 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Crane, T. P. Piantanida, “On Seeing Reddish-Green and Yellowish-Blue,” Science, in press.

De Monasterio, F. M.

K. E. Higgins, R. C. Caruso, N. J. Coletta, F. M. De Monasterio, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 252 (1982).

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, Eye Movements and Visual Perception (Clarendon, Oxford, 1973).

Hess, R. F.

R. F. Hess, R. J. Jacobs, A. Vingrys, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 610 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higgins, K. E.

K. E. Higgins, R. C. Caruso, N. J. Coletta, F. M. De Monasterio, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 252 (1982).

Hubel, D. H.

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. London 148, 574 (1959).

Jacobs, R. J.

R. F. Hess, R. J. Jacobs, A. Vingrys, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 610 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, D. H.

Mitra, S.

S. Mitra, J. Price, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 225 (1982).

Piantanida, T. P.

H. D. Crane, T. P. Piantanida, “On Seeing Reddish-Green and Yellowish-Blue,” Science, in press.

Price, J.

S. Mitra, J. Price, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 225 (1982).

Ratliff, F.

Riggs, L. A.

Steele, C. M.

Vingrys, A.

R. F. Hess, R. J. Jacobs, A. Vingrys, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 610 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesel, T. N.

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. London 148, 574 (1959).

Yarbus, A. I.

A. I. Yarbus, Eye Movements and Vision (Plenum, New York, 1967).

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt.

R. F. Hess, R. J. Jacobs, A. Vingrys, Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 55, 610 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

S. Mitra, J. Price, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 225 (1982).

K. E. Higgins, R. C. Caruso, N. J. Coletta, F. M. De Monasterio, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 22, 252 (1982).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Physiol. London

D. H. Hubel, T. N. Wiesel, J. Physiol. London 148, 574 (1959).

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. H. Kelly, Science, 214, 1257 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. W. Ditchburn, Eye Movements and Visual Perception (Clarendon, Oxford, 1973).

A. I. Yarbus, Eye Movements and Vision (Plenum, New York, 1967).

H. D. Crane, T. P. Piantanida, “On Seeing Reddish-Green and Yellowish-Blue,” Science, in press.

J. L. Brown, “The Structure of the Visual System,” in Vision and Visual Perception, C. H. Graham, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Artificial scotoma technique used in Ref. 10. A blank vertical stripe is stabilized on the CRT screen in the horizontal direction only controlled by the subject’s horizontal eye movements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional image-stabilizing system described in Ref. 11. Here the target remains stationary on the retina; stabilization is provided by two servo-controlled mirrors rotated by vertical and horizontal signals from the eyetracker. These mirrors are located so that their axes are nominally conjugate with the eye’s center of rotation Cr in the images E′ and E″ formed by lens pairs L1, L2 and L3, L4, respectively. Planes I1 and I2 are conjugate to the subject’s retina.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Deflection system of Fig. 2 modified to produce a simple type of artificial scotoma. An opaque spot on a transparent plate O(x,y) is located in the stabilized plane and illuminated from the rear. The stimulus pattern is a transparency T(x,y) located in the unstabilized plane I2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two deflection systems of the type shown in Fig. 2 arranged in tandem, both driven by appropriate eyetracker signals so that one system cancels the effects of the other. The scotoma plate O(x,y) is located in the stabilized plane I1′. The target T(x,y) need not be a transparency but can be self-luminous (including natural scenes). Disadvantages are discussed in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Final design in which all the features of Fig. 4 are obtained with a single (x,y) deflection system, eliminating synchronization problems.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Prototype scotoma device of the type shown schematically in Fig. 5 installed in our laboratory.

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