Abstract

Construction and characterization of an optical switch, based on electrowetting and suitable for use with multimode fibers are described. With a 50-μm core, 0.23-N.A. input and output fibers, the measured fiber-to-fiber insertion loss at λ = 0.633 μm was 0.5 ± 0.1 dB for one channel and 2.0 ± 0.2 dB for the other, with cross talk of −22.8 ± 0.5 and <−51 dB, respectively. Response time is ≈20 msec with driving power of ≈25 μW and a voltage requirement of ≤1.0 V. The switch has been tested for over 107 cycles with no observable degradation.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. G. Hale, R. Kompfner, Electron. Lett. 12/15, 388 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. B. Kummer, S. C. Mettler, C. M. Miller, in Sixth European Conference on Optical Communication, Amsterdam (1979), paper 6.4.
  3. W. C. Young, L. Curtis, Electron. Lett. 17, 571 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. H. McMahon, R. A. Soref, Opt. Lett. 3, 136 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. B. Spillman, R. L. Gravel, R. A. Soref, Appl. Opt. 17, 3822 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. A. Soref, Opt. Lett. 4, 155 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. A. Soref, D. H. McMahon, Opt. Lett. 5, 147 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. E. Wagner, J. Cheng, Appl. Opt. 19, 2921 (1980) and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. A. Soref, Opt. Lett. 6, 275 (1981); 7, 186 (1982); Appl. Opt. 21, 1386 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Mito, S. Matsushita, in 1978 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers of Japan, 1978), paper 860 (in Japanese).
  12. T. Aoyama, K. Doi, S. Nonake, in Technical Digest, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication, Genoa (1978), p. 383.
  13. H. Yamamoto, H. Ogiwara, Appl. Opt. 17, 3675 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Nunoshita, Y. Nomura, T. Matsui, T. Nakayama, Opt. Lett. 4, 27 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Stockmann, G. Winzer, E. Grassl, in Technical Digest, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication, Amsterdam (1979), paper 6.3.
  16. Preliminary communications about this work appear in J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1981); and J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, J. J. Veselka, G. Beni, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper WBB3.
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Beni, S. Hackwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Beni, M. A. Tenan, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6011 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. I. Antropov, Theoretical Electrochemistry (Mir, Moscow, 1972; Imported Publications, Chicago, 1972).
  20. S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, G. Beni, in Proceedings, First European Display Conference, Munich, Germany (Sept. 1981).
  21. G. Beni, S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 912 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. J. Vetter, Electrochemical Kinetics (Academic, New York, 1967).
  23. W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 19, 1127 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. M. Schroeder, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 91 (1978).
  25. The V-groove silicon chips have been developed for fiber-optic array splicing [G. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 75 (1978)] and have also been used in mechanical array switches.3
  26. Micro-Line Tubing; Thermoplastic Scientifics, Inc., Warren, N.J.
  27. G. Kortum, Treatise on Electrochemistry (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1965).
  28. M. Pourbaix, Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions (NACE, Cebelcor, 1974).
  29. D. T. Sawyer, J. L. Roberts, Experimental Electrochemistry for Chemists (Wiley, New York, 1974).
  30. From H. H. Landolt, R. Bornstein, Physikalisch-Chemisch Tabelen, cited in M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965).

1982 (1)

G. Beni, S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (4)

Preliminary communications about this work appear in J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1981); and J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, J. J. Veselka, G. Beni, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper WBB3.
[CrossRef]

W. C. Young, L. Curtis, Electron. Lett. 17, 571 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, Opt. Lett. 6, 275 (1981); 7, 186 (1982); Appl. Opt. 21, 1386 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Beni, M. A. Tenan, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6011 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (4)

1979 (3)

1978 (5)

D. H. McMahon, R. A. Soref, Opt. Lett. 3, 136 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Spillman, R. L. Gravel, R. A. Soref, Appl. Opt. 17, 3822 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yamamoto, H. Ogiwara, Appl. Opt. 17, 3675 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Schroeder, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 91 (1978).

The V-groove silicon chips have been developed for fiber-optic array splicing [G. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 75 (1978)] and have also been used in mechanical array switches.3

1976 (1)

P. G. Hale, R. Kompfner, Electron. Lett. 12/15, 388 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Antropov, L. I.

L. I. Antropov, Theoretical Electrochemistry (Mir, Moscow, 1972; Imported Publications, Chicago, 1972).

Aoyama, T.

Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoyama, K. Doi, S. Nonake, in Technical Digest, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication, Genoa (1978), p. 383.

Beni, G.

G. Beni, S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Beni, M. A. Tenan, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6011 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Preliminary communications about this work appear in J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1981); and J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, J. J. Veselka, G. Beni, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper WBB3.
[CrossRef]

G. Beni, S. Hackwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, G. Beni, in Proceedings, First European Display Conference, Munich, Germany (Sept. 1981).

Bornstein, R.

From H. H. Landolt, R. Bornstein, Physikalisch-Chemisch Tabelen, cited in M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965).

Cheng, J.

Curtis, L.

W. C. Young, L. Curtis, Electron. Lett. 17, 571 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Doi, K.

Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoyama, K. Doi, S. Nonake, in Technical Digest, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication, Genoa (1978), p. 383.

Fujii, Y.

Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, E.

M. Stockmann, G. Winzer, E. Grassl, in Technical Digest, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication, Amsterdam (1979), paper 6.3.

Gravel, R. L.

Hackwood, S.

G. Beni, S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Preliminary communications about this work appear in J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1981); and J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, J. J. Veselka, G. Beni, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper WBB3.
[CrossRef]

G. Beni, S. Hackwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, G. Beni, in Proceedings, First European Display Conference, Munich, Germany (Sept. 1981).

Hale, P. G.

P. G. Hale, R. Kompfner, Electron. Lett. 12/15, 388 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

G. Beni, S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Preliminary communications about this work appear in J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1981); and J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, J. J. Veselka, G. Beni, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper WBB3.
[CrossRef]

S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, G. Beni, in Proceedings, First European Display Conference, Munich, Germany (Sept. 1981).

Kompfner, R.

P. G. Hale, R. Kompfner, Electron. Lett. 12/15, 388 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kortum, G.

G. Kortum, Treatise on Electrochemistry (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1965).

Kummer, R. B.

R. B. Kummer, S. C. Mettler, C. M. Miller, in Sixth European Conference on Optical Communication, Amsterdam (1979), paper 6.4.

Landolt, H. H.

From H. H. Landolt, R. Bornstein, Physikalisch-Chemisch Tabelen, cited in M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965).

Matsui, T.

Matsushita, S.

I. Mito, S. Matsushita, in 1978 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers of Japan, 1978), paper 860 (in Japanese).

McMahon, D. H.

Mettler, S. C.

R. B. Kummer, S. C. Mettler, C. M. Miller, in Sixth European Conference on Optical Communication, Amsterdam (1979), paper 6.4.

Miller, C. M.

R. B. Kummer, S. C. Mettler, C. M. Miller, in Sixth European Conference on Optical Communication, Amsterdam (1979), paper 6.4.

Miller, G. M.

The V-groove silicon chips have been developed for fiber-optic array splicing [G. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 75 (1978)] and have also been used in mechanical array switches.3

Minowa, J.

Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mito, I.

I. Mito, S. Matsushita, in 1978 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers of Japan, 1978), paper 860 (in Japanese).

Nakayama, T.

Nomura, Y.

Nonake, S.

T. Aoyama, K. Doi, S. Nonake, in Technical Digest, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication, Genoa (1978), p. 383.

Nunoshita, M.

Ogiwara, H.

Pourbaix, M.

M. Pourbaix, Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions (NACE, Cebelcor, 1974).

Roberts, J. L.

D. T. Sawyer, J. L. Roberts, Experimental Electrochemistry for Chemists (Wiley, New York, 1974).

Sawyer, D. T.

D. T. Sawyer, J. L. Roberts, Experimental Electrochemistry for Chemists (Wiley, New York, 1974).

Schroeder, C. M.

C. M. Schroeder, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 91 (1978).

Soref, R. A.

Spillman, W. B.

Stockmann, M.

M. Stockmann, G. Winzer, E. Grassl, in Technical Digest, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication, Amsterdam (1979), paper 6.3.

Tenan, M. A.

G. Beni, M. A. Tenan, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6011 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Vetter, K. J.

K. J. Vetter, Electrochemical Kinetics (Academic, New York, 1967).

Wagner, R. E.

Winzer, G.

M. Stockmann, G. Winzer, E. Grassl, in Technical Digest, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication, Amsterdam (1979), paper 6.3.

Yamamoto, H.

Young, W. C.

W. C. Young, L. Curtis, Electron. Lett. 17, 571 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Beni, S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 912 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Preliminary communications about this work appear in J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, G. Beni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1981); and J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, J. J. Veselka, G. Beni, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper WBB3.
[CrossRef]

G. Beni, S. Hackwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

C. M. Schroeder, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 91 (1978).

The V-groove silicon chips have been developed for fiber-optic array splicing [G. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 75 (1978)] and have also been used in mechanical array switches.3

Electron. Lett. (3)

Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Hale, R. Kompfner, Electron. Lett. 12/15, 388 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Young, L. Curtis, Electron. Lett. 17, 571 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Beni, M. A. Tenan, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6011 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (12)

M. Stockmann, G. Winzer, E. Grassl, in Technical Digest, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication, Amsterdam (1979), paper 6.3.

K. J. Vetter, Electrochemical Kinetics (Academic, New York, 1967).

Micro-Line Tubing; Thermoplastic Scientifics, Inc., Warren, N.J.

G. Kortum, Treatise on Electrochemistry (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1965).

M. Pourbaix, Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions (NACE, Cebelcor, 1974).

D. T. Sawyer, J. L. Roberts, Experimental Electrochemistry for Chemists (Wiley, New York, 1974).

From H. H. Landolt, R. Bornstein, Physikalisch-Chemisch Tabelen, cited in M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965).

R. B. Kummer, S. C. Mettler, C. M. Miller, in Sixth European Conference on Optical Communication, Amsterdam (1979), paper 6.4.

I. Mito, S. Matsushita, in 1978 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers of Japan, 1978), paper 860 (in Japanese).

T. Aoyama, K. Doi, S. Nonake, in Technical Digest, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communication, Genoa (1978), p. 383.

L. I. Antropov, Theoretical Electrochemistry (Mir, Moscow, 1972; Imported Publications, Chicago, 1972).

S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, G. Beni, in Proceedings, First European Display Conference, Munich, Germany (Sept. 1981).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of continuous electrowetting.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic 1 × 2 CEW optical switch.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CEW optical switch device configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Prototype CEW optical switch.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light transmission T, charge Q, current i, and voltage V recorded during CEW.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison with Other Switches

Equations (4)

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V ( x ) = ϕ ( x ) - ϕ - ϕ q ,
ϕ = 1 L 0 L ϕ ( x ) d x
v = - C 6 μ | D L | ϕ ¯ - ϕ - ϕ q Δ ϕ ,
v = - 1 6 μ | D L | q Δ ϕ .

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