Abstract

This paper describes procedures for taking solar aureole photographs with conventional small format (35-or 70-mm) cameras and films and discusses photographic-photometry techniques for obtaining accurate solar aureole radiance measurements from these photographs, the measurements being used for retrieving atmospheric aerosol characteristics. The photographic data reduction techniques discussed here include sensitometry, densitometry, off-axis illumination distribution measurement, photogrammetry and photometry relations, etc. Comparison tests show that photographic measurements of the solar aureole radiance agree well with simultaneous photoelectric measurements.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. E. S. Green, A. Deepak, B. J. Lipofsky, Appl. Opt. 10, 1263 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. E. S. Green, A. Deepak, T. Sawada, R. S. Sholtes, “Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971), p. 1749.
  3. A. E. S. Green et al., J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 520 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. D. McPeters, A. E. S. Green, Appl. Opt. 15, 2457 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Deepak, “A Photographic Solar Aureole Isophote Technique for Measurement of Atmospheric Aerosol Properties,” in Proceedings, International Radiation Conference, H.-J. Bolle, Ed. (Science Press, Princeton, N.J., 1977), p. 160.
  6. A. Deepak, “Inversion of Solar Aureole Measurements for Determining Aerosol Characteristics,” in Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), pp. 297–323.
  7. F. E. Volz, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1041 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Newkirk, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1028 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Murai, Meteorol. Geophys. 19, 447 (1968).
  10. R. Eiden, Tellus 20, 380 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Rydgren, Tellus 20, 55 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. E Shaw, “Radiative and Physical Properties of Atmosphere Aerosols at the South Pole,” in Abstracts of papers presented at the Interdisciplinary Symposia, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Sixteenth General Assembly, Grenoble, France, 25 Aug.–6 Sept. 1975, p. 194.
  13. G. E. Shaw, C. S. Deehr, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1203 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. T. Twitty, R. J. Parent, J. A. Weinman, E. L. Eloranta, Appl. Opt. 15, 980 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. E. Volz, “Observations and Measurements of the Solar Aureole,” in Preprints, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (AMS, 45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108, 1978), pp. 238–240.
  16. A. Deepak, M. A. Box, J. T. Twitty, R. R. Adams, Appl. Opt. 17, 1977 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. R. Austin, Electro-Opt. Syst. Des. (June1973), p. 32.
  18. Eastman Kodak Publication AA-26, Optical Formulas and Their Application (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y., 1979).
  19. T. H. James, Ed., The Theory of Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966).
  20. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).
  21. H. N. Todd, Photographic Sensitometry (Wiley, New York, 1976).
  22. A. Deepak, Appl. Opt. 17, 1120 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Deepak, R. R. Adams, Appl. Opt. 18, 131 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. H. James, G. C. Higgins, Fundamentals of Photographic Theory (Morgan and Morgan, New York, 1964).
  25. A. Deepak, G. P. Box, M. A. Box, R. R. Adams, “Determination of Aerosol Characteristics by Photographic Solar Aureole Measurement,” in Extended Summary, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (AMS, 45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108, 1978), pp. 138–139.
  26. M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Appl. Opt. 18, 1376 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Atmos. Sci. 38, 1037 (May1981).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Deepak, G. P. Box, M. A. Box, Appl. Opt. 21, 2236 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Deepak, P. H. Wang, H. Malchow, C. Whitney, “Satellite Determination of Atmospheric Aerosols and Ozone from Limb and Down Viewing Measurements,” in Extended Abstracts, International Radiation Symposium, 11–16 Aug. 1980, Fort Collins (Colorado State U.), pp. 523–525.
  30. H. L. Malchow, C. K. Whitney, in Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), p. 217.
  31. T. J. Pepin, M. P. McCormick, EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 56, 995 (1975).

1982

1981

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Atmos. Sci. 38, 1037 (May1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

1978

1976

1975

G. E. Shaw, C. S. Deehr, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1203 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pepin, M. P. McCormick, EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 56, 995 (1975).

1973

R. R. Austin, Electro-Opt. Syst. Des. (June1973), p. 32.

1972

A. E. S. Green et al., J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 520 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

1970

F. E. Volz, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1041 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968

K. Murai, Meteorol. Geophys. 19, 447 (1968).

R. Eiden, Tellus 20, 380 (1968).
[CrossRef]

B. Rydgren, Tellus 20, 55 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1956

Adams, R. R.

A. Deepak, R. R. Adams, Appl. Opt. 18, 131 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deepak, M. A. Box, J. T. Twitty, R. R. Adams, Appl. Opt. 17, 1977 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deepak, G. P. Box, M. A. Box, R. R. Adams, “Determination of Aerosol Characteristics by Photographic Solar Aureole Measurement,” in Extended Summary, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (AMS, 45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108, 1978), pp. 138–139.

Austin, R. R.

R. R. Austin, Electro-Opt. Syst. Des. (June1973), p. 32.

Box, G. P.

A. Deepak, G. P. Box, M. A. Box, Appl. Opt. 21, 2236 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deepak, G. P. Box, M. A. Box, R. R. Adams, “Determination of Aerosol Characteristics by Photographic Solar Aureole Measurement,” in Extended Summary, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (AMS, 45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108, 1978), pp. 138–139.

Box, M. A.

A. Deepak, G. P. Box, M. A. Box, Appl. Opt. 21, 2236 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Atmos. Sci. 38, 1037 (May1981).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Appl. Opt. 18, 1376 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deepak, M. A. Box, J. T. Twitty, R. R. Adams, Appl. Opt. 17, 1977 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deepak, G. P. Box, M. A. Box, R. R. Adams, “Determination of Aerosol Characteristics by Photographic Solar Aureole Measurement,” in Extended Summary, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (AMS, 45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108, 1978), pp. 138–139.

Deehr, C. S.

G. E. Shaw, C. S. Deehr, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1203 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Deepak, A.

A. Deepak, G. P. Box, M. A. Box, Appl. Opt. 21, 2236 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Atmos. Sci. 38, 1037 (May1981).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Appl. Opt. 18, 1376 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deepak, R. R. Adams, Appl. Opt. 18, 131 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deepak, Appl. Opt. 17, 1120 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Deepak, M. A. Box, J. T. Twitty, R. R. Adams, Appl. Opt. 17, 1977 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. S. Green, A. Deepak, B. J. Lipofsky, Appl. Opt. 10, 1263 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. S. Green, A. Deepak, T. Sawada, R. S. Sholtes, “Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971), p. 1749.

A. Deepak, “A Photographic Solar Aureole Isophote Technique for Measurement of Atmospheric Aerosol Properties,” in Proceedings, International Radiation Conference, H.-J. Bolle, Ed. (Science Press, Princeton, N.J., 1977), p. 160.

A. Deepak, “Inversion of Solar Aureole Measurements for Determining Aerosol Characteristics,” in Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), pp. 297–323.

A. Deepak, G. P. Box, M. A. Box, R. R. Adams, “Determination of Aerosol Characteristics by Photographic Solar Aureole Measurement,” in Extended Summary, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (AMS, 45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108, 1978), pp. 138–139.

A. Deepak, P. H. Wang, H. Malchow, C. Whitney, “Satellite Determination of Atmospheric Aerosols and Ozone from Limb and Down Viewing Measurements,” in Extended Abstracts, International Radiation Symposium, 11–16 Aug. 1980, Fort Collins (Colorado State U.), pp. 523–525.

Eiden, R.

R. Eiden, Tellus 20, 380 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. L.

Green, A. E. S.

R. D. McPeters, A. E. S. Green, Appl. Opt. 15, 2457 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. S. Green et al., J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 520 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. E. S. Green, A. Deepak, B. J. Lipofsky, Appl. Opt. 10, 1263 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. S. Green, A. Deepak, T. Sawada, R. S. Sholtes, “Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971), p. 1749.

Higgins, G. C.

T. H. James, G. C. Higgins, Fundamentals of Photographic Theory (Morgan and Morgan, New York, 1964).

James, T. H.

T. H. James, G. C. Higgins, Fundamentals of Photographic Theory (Morgan and Morgan, New York, 1964).

Lipofsky, B. J.

Malchow, H.

A. Deepak, P. H. Wang, H. Malchow, C. Whitney, “Satellite Determination of Atmospheric Aerosols and Ozone from Limb and Down Viewing Measurements,” in Extended Abstracts, International Radiation Symposium, 11–16 Aug. 1980, Fort Collins (Colorado State U.), pp. 523–525.

Malchow, H. L.

H. L. Malchow, C. K. Whitney, in Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), p. 217.

McCormick, M. P.

T. J. Pepin, M. P. McCormick, EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 56, 995 (1975).

McPeters, R. D.

Murai, K.

K. Murai, Meteorol. Geophys. 19, 447 (1968).

Newkirk, G.

Parent, R. J.

Pepin, T. J.

T. J. Pepin, M. P. McCormick, EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 56, 995 (1975).

Rydgren, B.

B. Rydgren, Tellus 20, 55 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, T.

A. E. S. Green, A. Deepak, T. Sawada, R. S. Sholtes, “Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971), p. 1749.

Shaw, G. E

G. E Shaw, “Radiative and Physical Properties of Atmosphere Aerosols at the South Pole,” in Abstracts of papers presented at the Interdisciplinary Symposia, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Sixteenth General Assembly, Grenoble, France, 25 Aug.–6 Sept. 1975, p. 194.

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, C. S. Deehr, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1203 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sholtes, R. S.

A. E. S. Green, A. Deepak, T. Sawada, R. S. Sholtes, “Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971), p. 1749.

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

Todd, H. N.

H. N. Todd, Photographic Sensitometry (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Twitty, J. T.

Volz, F. E.

F. E. Volz, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1041 (1970).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Volz, “Observations and Measurements of the Solar Aureole,” in Preprints, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (AMS, 45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108, 1978), pp. 238–240.

Wang, P. H.

A. Deepak, P. H. Wang, H. Malchow, C. Whitney, “Satellite Determination of Atmospheric Aerosols and Ozone from Limb and Down Viewing Measurements,” in Extended Abstracts, International Radiation Symposium, 11–16 Aug. 1980, Fort Collins (Colorado State U.), pp. 523–525.

Weinman, J. A.

Whitney, C.

A. Deepak, P. H. Wang, H. Malchow, C. Whitney, “Satellite Determination of Atmospheric Aerosols and Ozone from Limb and Down Viewing Measurements,” in Extended Abstracts, International Radiation Symposium, 11–16 Aug. 1980, Fort Collins (Colorado State U.), pp. 523–525.

Whitney, C. K.

H. L. Malchow, C. K. Whitney, in Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), p. 217.

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Sci.

M. A. Box, A. Deepak, Atmos. Sci. 38, 1037 (May1981).
[CrossRef]

Electro-Opt. Syst. Des.

R. R. Austin, Electro-Opt. Syst. Des. (June1973), p. 32.

EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union

T. J. Pepin, M. P. McCormick, EOS Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 56, 995 (1975).

J. Appl. Meteorol.

G. E. Shaw, C. S. Deehr, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1203 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

F. E. Volz, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1041 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

A. E. S. Green et al., J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 520 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Meteorol. Geophys.

K. Murai, Meteorol. Geophys. 19, 447 (1968).

Tellus

R. Eiden, Tellus 20, 380 (1968).
[CrossRef]

B. Rydgren, Tellus 20, 55 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. E Shaw, “Radiative and Physical Properties of Atmosphere Aerosols at the South Pole,” in Abstracts of papers presented at the Interdisciplinary Symposia, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Sixteenth General Assembly, Grenoble, France, 25 Aug.–6 Sept. 1975, p. 194.

A. Deepak, “A Photographic Solar Aureole Isophote Technique for Measurement of Atmospheric Aerosol Properties,” in Proceedings, International Radiation Conference, H.-J. Bolle, Ed. (Science Press, Princeton, N.J., 1977), p. 160.

A. Deepak, “Inversion of Solar Aureole Measurements for Determining Aerosol Characteristics,” in Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), pp. 297–323.

A. E. S. Green, A. Deepak, T. Sawada, R. S. Sholtes, “Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1971), p. 1749.

F. E. Volz, “Observations and Measurements of the Solar Aureole,” in Preprints, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (AMS, 45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108, 1978), pp. 238–240.

Eastman Kodak Publication AA-26, Optical Formulas and Their Application (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y., 1979).

T. H. James, Ed., The Theory of Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

H. N. Todd, Photographic Sensitometry (Wiley, New York, 1976).

A. Deepak, P. H. Wang, H. Malchow, C. Whitney, “Satellite Determination of Atmospheric Aerosols and Ozone from Limb and Down Viewing Measurements,” in Extended Abstracts, International Radiation Symposium, 11–16 Aug. 1980, Fort Collins (Colorado State U.), pp. 523–525.

H. L. Malchow, C. K. Whitney, in Inversion Methods in Atmospheric Remote Sounding, A. Deepak, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), p. 217.

T. H. James, G. C. Higgins, Fundamentals of Photographic Theory (Morgan and Morgan, New York, 1964).

A. Deepak, G. P. Box, M. A. Box, R. R. Adams, “Determination of Aerosol Characteristics by Photographic Solar Aureole Measurement,” in Extended Summary, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation (AMS, 45 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 02108, 1978), pp. 138–139.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the solar aureole photography equipment and the geometry of the experimental technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of a section of the neutral density filter disk assembly showing the filter held in a circular snap-type frame.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured spectral response of a 4.0D Kodak Wratten neutral density filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of a good quality photograph of the sun and its aureole.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

H-D curve of the Kodak Plus-X film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Isodensity contours of the solar aureole photograph made with a Joyce-Loebl microdensitometer isodensitracer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Computed isophotes corresponding to the photograph in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical density at points along the film projection of the almucantar for photographs taken with a λ = 600-nm filter. Circles represent Joyce-Loebl microdensitometer measurements; crosses, the spot densitometer measurements.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

H-D curves obtained by the two densitometers—Joyce-Loebl microdensitometer and spot densitometer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Curves represent film projections of almucantar scans for sun at various solar zenith angles for a camera lens of focal lengths of 55 mm and 80 mm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Isodensity contours of the solar aureole photograph made with a video scanning color-coded TV system.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

c = F 2 f ( u - F ) ,
E = I t ,
D NET = D - D F = γ ( log 10 E - log 10 E F ) ,
D = log 10 ( O ) = log 10 ( 1 τ ) = log 10 ( Φ O Φ T ) .
( y p c - a ) 2 a 2 + x p c 2 b 2 = 1 ,
y p - y c = 1 2 F ( x p - x c ) 2 ,
I p ( λ ) = B p ( λ ) F 2 ( cos δ p ) α T g T v / 4 V 2 f 2 ,
I p ( λ ) = B p ( λ ) T g T v ( cos δ p ) α / 4 f 2 .
I p ( λ ) t Δ λ = 10 ( D p - D F ) / γ ,
B p ( λ ) = K 10 D p / γ ( cos δ p ) - α ,
K = 10 - D F / γ ( 4 f 2 T v T g Δ λ t ) .
B s ( λ ) 10 - D ND = 10 D s / γ ( cos δ s ) - α K ,
K = B s ( λ ) 10 - ( D s / γ + D N D ) ( cos δ s ) α

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