Abstract

Chlorine monoxide (ClO) is thought to play an important role in a photochemical cycle which causes the destruction of ozone in the earth’s stratosphere. Since lines of the (1,0) fundamental of ClO lie near 14C16O2 laser lines, IR heterodyne spectroscopy is potentially an important technique for monitoring the ClO abundance. However, due to the presence of lines from other trace atmospheric gases in this spectral range, the interpretation of such observations is ambiguous unless high-resolution laboratory measurements support the identifications. We report here measured frequencies for spectral lines of seven trace atmospheric gases which absorb near the 14C16O2 laser transitions relevant to the detection of ClO by IR heterodyne spectroscopy.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. S. Rowland, M. J. Molina, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 13, 1 (1975). See also “Causes and Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Reduction: An Update,” Report to the NRC (National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., 1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Rogers, M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Deming, J. J. Hillman, J. Faris, D. Zipoy, submitted to Science.
  3. M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, G. Chin, D. Zipoy, Opt. Eng. 21, 313 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. G. Anderson, H. J. Grassel, R. E. Shetter, J. J. Margitan, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2869 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Parrish, R. L. De Zafra, P. M. Solomon, J. W. Barrett, E. R. Carlson, Science 211, 1158 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. W. Waters, J. C. Hardy, R. F. Jarnet, H. M. Pickett, Science 214, 61 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. T. Menzies, Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 151 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. G. Maki, F. J. Lovas, W. B. Olson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 92, 410 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. T. Menzies, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; private communication (1982).
  10. T. Kostiuk, J. J. Hillman, J. L. Faris, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 397 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Freed, L. C. Bradley, R. G. O’Donnell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1195 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, A. G. Maki, D. J. Sukle, Appl. Opt. 20, 1676 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. J. Hillman, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, J. L. Faris, J. C. Novaco, M. J. Mumma, Opt. Lett. 1, 81 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. G. Maki, Natl. Bureau of Standards; private communications (1982).
  15. J. Kauppinen, K. Jolma, V.-M. Horneman, Appl. Opt. 21, 3332 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, V. M. Devi, P. P. Das, K. N. Rao, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 84, 234 (1980). K. N. Rao kindly provided a complete listing of NO2 line positions and strengths obtained in this work.
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. W. Brault, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and D. E. Jennings, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; private communications (1982).
  18. S. J. Daunt, A. K. Atakan, W. E. Blass, G. W. Halsey, D. E. Jennings, D. C. Reuter, J. Susskind, submitted to Astrophys. J.

1982 (3)

M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, G. Chin, D. Zipoy, Opt. Eng. 21, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Maki, F. J. Lovas, W. B. Olson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 92, 410 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Kauppinen, K. Jolma, V.-M. Horneman, Appl. Opt. 21, 3332 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (4)

T. Kostiuk, J. J. Hillman, J. L. Faris, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 397 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, A. G. Maki, D. J. Sukle, Appl. Opt. 20, 1676 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Parrish, R. L. De Zafra, P. M. Solomon, J. W. Barrett, E. R. Carlson, Science 211, 1158 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Waters, J. C. Hardy, R. F. Jarnet, H. M. Pickett, Science 214, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (3)

J. G. Anderson, H. J. Grassel, R. E. Shetter, J. J. Margitan, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2869 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. Freed, L. C. Bradley, R. G. O’Donnell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1195 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, V. M. Devi, P. P. Das, K. N. Rao, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 84, 234 (1980). K. N. Rao kindly provided a complete listing of NO2 line positions and strengths obtained in this work.
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. T. Menzies, Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 151 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1975 (1)

F. S. Rowland, M. J. Molina, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 13, 1 (1975). See also “Causes and Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Reduction: An Update,” Report to the NRC (National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., 1982).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. G.

J. G. Anderson, H. J. Grassel, R. E. Shetter, J. J. Margitan, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2869 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Atakan, A. K.

S. J. Daunt, A. K. Atakan, W. E. Blass, G. W. Halsey, D. E. Jennings, D. C. Reuter, J. Susskind, submitted to Astrophys. J.

Barrett, J. W.

A. Parrish, R. L. De Zafra, P. M. Solomon, J. W. Barrett, E. R. Carlson, Science 211, 1158 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blass, W. E.

S. J. Daunt, A. K. Atakan, W. E. Blass, G. W. Halsey, D. E. Jennings, D. C. Reuter, J. Susskind, submitted to Astrophys. J.

Bradley, L. C.

C. Freed, L. C. Bradley, R. G. O’Donnell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1195 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Brault, J. W.

J. W. Brault, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and D. E. Jennings, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; private communications (1982).

Buhl, D.

Camy-Peyret, C.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, V. M. Devi, P. P. Das, K. N. Rao, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 84, 234 (1980). K. N. Rao kindly provided a complete listing of NO2 line positions and strengths obtained in this work.
[CrossRef]

Carlson, E. R.

A. Parrish, R. L. De Zafra, P. M. Solomon, J. W. Barrett, E. R. Carlson, Science 211, 1158 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, G.

M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, G. Chin, D. Zipoy, Opt. Eng. 21, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Das, P. P.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, V. M. Devi, P. P. Das, K. N. Rao, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 84, 234 (1980). K. N. Rao kindly provided a complete listing of NO2 line positions and strengths obtained in this work.
[CrossRef]

Daunt, S. J.

S. J. Daunt, A. K. Atakan, W. E. Blass, G. W. Halsey, D. E. Jennings, D. C. Reuter, J. Susskind, submitted to Astrophys. J.

De Zafra, R. L.

A. Parrish, R. L. De Zafra, P. M. Solomon, J. W. Barrett, E. R. Carlson, Science 211, 1158 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deming, D.

J. D. Rogers, M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Deming, J. J. Hillman, J. Faris, D. Zipoy, submitted to Science.

Devi, V. M.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, V. M. Devi, P. P. Das, K. N. Rao, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 84, 234 (1980). K. N. Rao kindly provided a complete listing of NO2 line positions and strengths obtained in this work.
[CrossRef]

Faris, J.

J. D. Rogers, M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Deming, J. J. Hillman, J. Faris, D. Zipoy, submitted to Science.

Faris, J. L.

Flaud, J. M.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, V. M. Devi, P. P. Das, K. N. Rao, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 84, 234 (1980). K. N. Rao kindly provided a complete listing of NO2 line positions and strengths obtained in this work.
[CrossRef]

Freed, C.

C. Freed, L. C. Bradley, R. G. O’Donnell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1195 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Grassel, H. J.

J. G. Anderson, H. J. Grassel, R. E. Shetter, J. J. Margitan, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2869 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Halsey, G. W.

S. J. Daunt, A. K. Atakan, W. E. Blass, G. W. Halsey, D. E. Jennings, D. C. Reuter, J. Susskind, submitted to Astrophys. J.

Hardy, J. C.

J. W. Waters, J. C. Hardy, R. F. Jarnet, H. M. Pickett, Science 214, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, J. J.

T. Kostiuk, J. J. Hillman, J. L. Faris, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 397 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hillman, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, J. L. Faris, J. C. Novaco, M. J. Mumma, Opt. Lett. 1, 81 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Deming, J. J. Hillman, J. Faris, D. Zipoy, submitted to Science.

Horneman, V.-M.

Jarnet, R. F.

J. W. Waters, J. C. Hardy, R. F. Jarnet, H. M. Pickett, Science 214, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jennings, D. E.

S. J. Daunt, A. K. Atakan, W. E. Blass, G. W. Halsey, D. E. Jennings, D. C. Reuter, J. Susskind, submitted to Astrophys. J.

Jolma, K.

Kauppinen, J.

Kostiuk, T.

M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, G. Chin, D. Zipoy, Opt. Eng. 21, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Kostiuk, J. J. Hillman, J. L. Faris, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 397 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hillman, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, J. L. Faris, J. C. Novaco, M. J. Mumma, Opt. Lett. 1, 81 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Deming, J. J. Hillman, J. Faris, D. Zipoy, submitted to Science.

Lovas, F. J.

A. G. Maki, F. J. Lovas, W. B. Olson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 92, 410 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

A. G. Maki, F. J. Lovas, W. B. Olson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 92, 410 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, A. G. Maki, D. J. Sukle, Appl. Opt. 20, 1676 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Maki, Natl. Bureau of Standards; private communications (1982).

Margitan, J. J.

J. G. Anderson, H. J. Grassel, R. E. Shetter, J. J. Margitan, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2869 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

R. T. Menzies, Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 151 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; private communication (1982).

Molina, M. J.

F. S. Rowland, M. J. Molina, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 13, 1 (1975). See also “Causes and Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Reduction: An Update,” Report to the NRC (National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., 1982).
[CrossRef]

Mumma, M. J.

M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, G. Chin, D. Zipoy, Opt. Eng. 21, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hillman, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, J. L. Faris, J. C. Novaco, M. J. Mumma, Opt. Lett. 1, 81 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Deming, J. J. Hillman, J. Faris, D. Zipoy, submitted to Science.

Novaco, J. C.

O’Donnell, R. G.

C. Freed, L. C. Bradley, R. G. O’Donnell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1195 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Olson, W. B.

A. G. Maki, F. J. Lovas, W. B. Olson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 92, 410 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Parrish, A.

A. Parrish, R. L. De Zafra, P. M. Solomon, J. W. Barrett, E. R. Carlson, Science 211, 1158 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, F. R.

Pickett, H. M.

J. W. Waters, J. C. Hardy, R. F. Jarnet, H. M. Pickett, Science 214, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, K. N.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, V. M. Devi, P. P. Das, K. N. Rao, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 84, 234 (1980). K. N. Rao kindly provided a complete listing of NO2 line positions and strengths obtained in this work.
[CrossRef]

Reuter, D. C.

S. J. Daunt, A. K. Atakan, W. E. Blass, G. W. Halsey, D. E. Jennings, D. C. Reuter, J. Susskind, submitted to Astrophys. J.

Rogers, J. D.

J. D. Rogers, M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Deming, J. J. Hillman, J. Faris, D. Zipoy, submitted to Science.

Rowland, F. S.

F. S. Rowland, M. J. Molina, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 13, 1 (1975). See also “Causes and Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Reduction: An Update,” Report to the NRC (National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., 1982).
[CrossRef]

Shetter, R. E.

J. G. Anderson, H. J. Grassel, R. E. Shetter, J. J. Margitan, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2869 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, P. M.

A. Parrish, R. L. De Zafra, P. M. Solomon, J. W. Barrett, E. R. Carlson, Science 211, 1158 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukle, D. J.

Susskind, J.

S. J. Daunt, A. K. Atakan, W. E. Blass, G. W. Halsey, D. E. Jennings, D. C. Reuter, J. Susskind, submitted to Astrophys. J.

Waters, J. W.

J. W. Waters, J. C. Hardy, R. F. Jarnet, H. M. Pickett, Science 214, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, J. S.

Zipoy, D.

M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, G. Chin, D. Zipoy, Opt. Eng. 21, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Rogers, M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Deming, J. J. Hillman, J. Faris, D. Zipoy, submitted to Science.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

R. T. Menzies, Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 151 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Freed, L. C. Bradley, R. G. O’Donnell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1195 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J. G. Anderson, H. J. Grassel, R. E. Shetter, J. J. Margitan, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2869 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (3)

A. G. Maki, F. J. Lovas, W. B. Olson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 92, 410 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Kostiuk, J. J. Hillman, J. L. Faris, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 397 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, V. M. Devi, P. P. Das, K. N. Rao, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 84, 234 (1980). K. N. Rao kindly provided a complete listing of NO2 line positions and strengths obtained in this work.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Buhl, G. Chin, D. Zipoy, Opt. Eng. 21, 313 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1)

F. S. Rowland, M. J. Molina, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 13, 1 (1975). See also “Causes and Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Reduction: An Update,” Report to the NRC (National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C., 1982).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

A. Parrish, R. L. De Zafra, P. M. Solomon, J. W. Barrett, E. R. Carlson, Science 211, 1158 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Waters, J. C. Hardy, R. F. Jarnet, H. M. Pickett, Science 214, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

J. D. Rogers, M. J. Mumma, T. Kostiuk, D. Deming, J. J. Hillman, J. Faris, D. Zipoy, submitted to Science.

R. T. Menzies, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; private communication (1982).

J. W. Brault, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and D. E. Jennings, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; private communications (1982).

S. J. Daunt, A. K. Atakan, W. E. Blass, G. W. Halsey, D. E. Jennings, D. C. Reuter, J. Susskind, submitted to Astrophys. J.

A. G. Maki, Natl. Bureau of Standards; private communications (1982).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical IR heterodyne spectra of seven gases. The abscissa is the absolute frequency difference in megahertz from the 14C16O2P(12) laser line at 856.51545 cm−1. A common ordinate scale for relative transmittance is used for all seven spectra, and each vertical unit represents roughly 12–15% single sideband absorption by the gas. The plot labeled CH3Cl shows no spectral lines at this sensitivity level and may be used to estimate the noise level in the other spectra. The data for the OCS line near the zero of IF are not shown since they are off-scale in this figure. See the text for further details.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Low-resolution (~25-MHz) spectrum of the 16O12C32S P(30) line along with the corresponding high-resolution (~5-MHz) spectrum of the region near line center (the region indicated by the dotted lines on the low-resolution plot). The abscissa is the absolute frequency difference in megahertz from the 14C16O2P(24) laser line at 846.31794 cm−1. The vertical scale is the approximate single sideband absolute transmittance of the gas. The calculated (Wells et al.11) OCS line position is indicated by the arrow in the high-resolution plot. The gas cell was 10 cm long and was filled with OCS to a pressure of 3.4 Torr. See the text for further details.

Tables (4)

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