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Pressure differentials move and focus the aerosol beam. The pressure is highest in the innermost tube of the focusing element; it is 10−1 Torr outside the tube to the left of the skimmer; and it is lowest (10−5 Torr) in the mass-spectrometer chamber to the right of the skimmer.
Stroboscopic autocollimator forms a strobed source and return images of the reticle. The separation of the images is proportional to the angle of misalignment between the mirror normal and the autocollimator axis. In the application illustrated, the mirror is attached to a rotating object. It is the alignment of the axis of rotation of the object that is checked by the measurement of the orientation of the mirror normal.