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References

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  1. D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980); B. F. Robinson, L. L. Biehl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 16 (1979).
  2. J. B. Schutt, B. N. Holben, C. M. Shai, J. H. Henninger, Appl. Opt. 20, 2033 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. S. Kimes, J. A. Kirchner, Remote Sensing Environ. 12, 141 (1982); J. B. Schutt, J. F. Arens, C. M. Shai, E. Stromberg, Appl. Opt. 13, 2218 (1974); E. R. Young, K. C. Clark, R. B. Bennett, T. L. Houk, Appl. Opt. 19, 3500 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. V. Dave, Sol. Energy 21, 361 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Kirchner, Remote Sensing Environ. 12, 141 (1982); J. B. Schutt, J. F. Arens, C. M. Shai, E. Stromberg, Appl. Opt. 13, 2218 (1974); E. R. Young, K. C. Clark, R. B. Bennett, T. L. Houk, Appl. Opt. 19, 3500 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980); B. F. Robinson, L. L. Biehl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 16 (1979).

1978 (1)

J. V. Dave, Sol. Energy 21, 361 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Dave, J. V.

J. V. Dave, Sol. Energy 21, 361 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Henninger, J. H.

Holben, B. N.

Kimes, D. S.

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Kirchner, Remote Sensing Environ. 12, 141 (1982); J. B. Schutt, J. F. Arens, C. M. Shai, E. Stromberg, Appl. Opt. 13, 2218 (1974); E. R. Young, K. C. Clark, R. B. Bennett, T. L. Houk, Appl. Opt. 19, 3500 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980); B. F. Robinson, L. L. Biehl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 16 (1979).

Kirchner, J. A.

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Kirchner, Remote Sensing Environ. 12, 141 (1982); J. B. Schutt, J. F. Arens, C. M. Shai, E. Stromberg, Appl. Opt. 13, 2218 (1974); E. R. Young, K. C. Clark, R. B. Bennett, T. L. Houk, Appl. Opt. 19, 3500 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranson, K. J.

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980); B. F. Robinson, L. L. Biehl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 16 (1979).

Schutt, J. B.

Shai, C. M.

Smith, J. A.

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980); B. F. Robinson, L. L. Biehl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 16 (1979).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing (1)

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ranson, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980); B. F. Robinson, L. L. Biehl, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 16 (1979).

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Kirchner, Remote Sensing Environ. 12, 141 (1982); J. B. Schutt, J. F. Arens, C. M. Shai, E. Stromberg, Appl. Opt. 13, 2218 (1974); E. R. Young, K. C. Clark, R. B. Bennett, T. L. Houk, Appl. Opt. 19, 3500 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy (1)

J. V. Dave, Sol. Energy 21, 361 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Researcher taking a radiometric measurement of a target point in the field. The target point is that point on the ground which is coincident with the radiometer’s field of view. His body or any nearby object reflects onto the target point (1) direct solar flux, (2) diffuse solar flux, and (3) reflected ground flux. The object also blocks diffuse solar flux (4) from reaching the target point.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated percent error of radiance measurement due to the presence of a nearby object (opposite the solar direction) as a function of solid angle intercepted by the object, solar zenith angle, red or IR wavelength bands, and black or white objects. A person kneeling 0.5, 1, and 3 m from the target point blocks a solid angle of 0.58, 0.14, and 0.01 sr, respectively. In addition, a 3- × 3-m side of a van at these same distances blocks 2.0, 1.3, and 0.14 sr, respectively.

Equations (5)

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E = 0 2 π 0 π / 2 L ( θ , ϕ ) cos θ sin θ d θ d ϕ ,
E T = E E B + E R ,
E 0 = 0 2 π 0 π / 2 L ( α , γ ) cos α sin α d α d γ ,
E R = E 0 π cos θ sin θ d θ d ϕ ,
( E T E ) / E * 100.

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