Abstract

A balloon-borne lidar system for the measurement of ozone and hydroxyl radical in the stratosphere has been constructed and flown by Goddard Space Flight Center. On this flight ozone concentration at altitudes between 20 and 37 km were determined with vertical resolution of ∼0.5 km. In addition, horizontally resolved ozone measurements with 0.15-km resolution were obtained over a 2-km range. The temporal variation of the hydroxyl radical concentration was measured in the 34–37-km altitude region, ranging from 40 parts/trillion shortly after noon to ∼5 parts/trillion 2 h after sunset. Improvements in the system are proposed to increase the sensitivity of the instrument below the parts/trillion level, permitting hydroxyl determinations in the 20–30-km altitude range.

© 1982 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. G. Anderson, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4645 (1971).
  2. J. G. Anderson, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 7820 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. G. Anderson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 319 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. R. Burnett, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 319 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, T. McGee, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 331 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. R. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, D. Philen, T. McGee, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1197 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, P. M. Selzer, R. Munoz, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1181 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5185 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. F. J. Evans, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, Atmosphere 14, 189 (1976).
  11. R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, E. C. Y. Inn, P. Hamill, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1129 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. J. McGee, T. J. McIlrath, Appl. Opt. 18, 1710 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Zafonte, W. Long, J. N. Pitts, Anal. Chem. 46, 1872 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. C. Acuna, P. L. Hinds, R. J. Stattel, R. T. Cannon, J. K. Niswander, “The Sounding Rocket Division Airborne PCM System,” NASA Tech. Memo. X-743-8-30 (1979).
  15. D. Kley et al., J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 2513 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Reiter, R. Sladkovic, “On Periods of Extremely Slight and Extremely Strong Fluctuating Ozone Profiles in the Lower Stratosphere Based on Daily Balloon Radiosonde Soundings,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial International Ozone Symposium, Vol. 2, J. London, Ed. (NCAR, Boulder, 1980), p. 1112.
  17. M. Hanabusa, C. C. Wang, S. Japar, D. K. Killinger, W. Fisher, Atmosphere J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2118 (1977).
  18. G. Ortgies, K.-H. Gericke, F. J. Comes, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 905 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, K. Asai, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 69 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, W. S. Heaps, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 73 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Weinstock, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 749 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1981

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, P. M. Selzer, R. Munoz, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1181 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5185 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, E. C. Y. Inn, P. Hamill, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1129 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, K. Asai, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 69 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, W. S. Heaps, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. Weinstock, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 749 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. Ortgies, K.-H. Gericke, F. J. Comes, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 905 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, D. Philen, T. McGee, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1197 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. J. McGee, T. J. McIlrath, Appl. Opt. 18, 1710 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kley et al., J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 2513 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

M. Hanabusa, C. C. Wang, S. Japar, D. K. Killinger, W. Fisher, Atmosphere J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2118 (1977).

1976

W. F. J. Evans, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, Atmosphere 14, 189 (1976).

J. G. Anderson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 319 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 319 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, T. McGee, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 331 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

L. Zafonte, W. Long, J. N. Pitts, Anal. Chem. 46, 1872 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

J. G. Anderson, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4645 (1971).

J. G. Anderson, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 7820 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Acuna, M. C.

M. C. Acuna, P. L. Hinds, R. J. Stattel, R. T. Cannon, J. K. Niswander, “The Sounding Rocket Division Airborne PCM System,” NASA Tech. Memo. X-743-8-30 (1979).

Anderson, J. G.

J. G. Anderson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 319 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Anderson, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 7820 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Anderson, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4645 (1971).

Asai, K.

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, K. Asai, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 69 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, C. R.

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5185 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 319 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, E. B.

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5185 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, R. T.

M. C. Acuna, P. L. Hinds, R. J. Stattel, R. T. Cannon, J. K. Niswander, “The Sounding Rocket Division Airborne PCM System,” NASA Tech. Memo. X-743-8-30 (1979).

Comes, F. J.

G. Ortgies, K.-H. Gericke, F. J. Comes, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 905 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, K. Asai, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 69 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, W. S. Heaps, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, D. Philen, T. McGee, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1197 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, T. McGee, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 331 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L. I.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, P. M. Selzer, R. Munoz, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1181 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ehhalt, D. H.

D. R. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. F. J.

W. F. J. Evans, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, Atmosphere 14, 189 (1976).

Fischer, S. D.

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, W. S. Heaps, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, K. Asai, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 69 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, W.

M. Hanabusa, C. C. Wang, S. Japar, D. K. Killinger, W. Fisher, Atmosphere J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2118 (1977).

Gericke, K.-H.

G. Ortgies, K.-H. Gericke, F. J. Comes, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 905 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hamill, P.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, E. C. Y. Inn, P. Hamill, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1129 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hanabusa, M.

M. Hanabusa, C. C. Wang, S. Japar, D. K. Killinger, W. Fisher, Atmosphere J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2118 (1977).

Heaps, W.

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, D. Philen, T. McGee, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1197 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, T. McGee, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 331 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Heaps, W. S.

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, W. S. Heaps, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hinds, P. L.

M. C. Acuna, P. L. Hinds, R. J. Stattel, R. T. Cannon, J. K. Niswander, “The Sounding Rocket Division Airborne PCM System,” NASA Tech. Memo. X-743-8-30 (1979).

Inn, E. C. Y.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, E. C. Y. Inn, P. Hamill, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1129 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Japar, S.

M. Hanabusa, C. C. Wang, S. Japar, D. K. Killinger, W. Fisher, Atmosphere J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2118 (1977).

Kerr, J. B.

W. F. J. Evans, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, Atmosphere 14, 189 (1976).

Killinger, D. K.

M. Hanabusa, C. C. Wang, S. Japar, D. K. Killinger, W. Fisher, Atmosphere J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2118 (1977).

Kley, D.

D. Kley et al., J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 2513 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Long, W.

L. Zafonte, W. Long, J. N. Pitts, Anal. Chem. 46, 1872 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McConnell, J. C.

W. F. J. Evans, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, Atmosphere 14, 189 (1976).

McGee, T.

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, D. Philen, T. McGee, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1197 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, T. McGee, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 331 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McGee, T. J.

McIlrath, T. J.

Munoz, R.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, P. M. Selzer, R. Munoz, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1181 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Niswander, J. K.

M. C. Acuna, P. L. Hinds, R. J. Stattel, R. T. Cannon, J. K. Niswander, “The Sounding Rocket Division Airborne PCM System,” NASA Tech. Memo. X-743-8-30 (1979).

Ortgies, G.

G. Ortgies, K.-H. Gericke, F. J. Comes, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 905 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Patz, H. W.

D. R. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Perner, D. R.

D. R. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Philen, D.

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, D. Philen, T. McGee, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1197 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. N.

L. Zafonte, W. Long, J. N. Pitts, Anal. Chem. 46, 1872 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Platt, U.

D. R. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Reiter, R.

R. Reiter, R. Sladkovic, “On Periods of Extremely Slight and Extremely Strong Fluctuating Ozone Profiles in the Lower Stratosphere Based on Daily Balloon Radiosonde Soundings,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial International Ozone Symposium, Vol. 2, J. London, Ed. (NCAR, Boulder, 1980), p. 1112.

Ridley, B. A.

W. F. J. Evans, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, Atmosphere 14, 189 (1976).

Rogers, M. O.

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, W. S. Heaps, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, K. Asai, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 69 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Roth, E. P.

D. R. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, H. I.

W. F. J. Evans, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, Atmosphere 14, 189 (1976).

Selzer, P. M.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, P. M. Selzer, R. Munoz, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1181 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sladkovic, R.

R. Reiter, R. Sladkovic, “On Periods of Extremely Slight and Extremely Strong Fluctuating Ozone Profiles in the Lower Stratosphere Based on Daily Balloon Radiosonde Soundings,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial International Ozone Symposium, Vol. 2, J. London, Ed. (NCAR, Boulder, 1980), p. 1112.

Stattel, R. J.

M. C. Acuna, P. L. Hinds, R. J. Stattel, R. T. Cannon, J. K. Niswander, “The Sounding Rocket Division Airborne PCM System,” NASA Tech. Memo. X-743-8-30 (1979).

Toon, O. B.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, E. C. Y. Inn, P. Hamill, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1129 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R. P.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, E. C. Y. Inn, P. Hamill, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1129 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Volz, A.

D. R. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, P. M. Selzer, R. Munoz, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1181 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Hanabusa, C. C. Wang, S. Japar, D. K. Killinger, W. Fisher, Atmosphere J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2118 (1977).

Wardle, D. I.

W. F. J. Evans, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, Atmosphere 14, 189 (1976).

Weinstock, J.

J. Weinstock, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 749 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, R. C.

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, E. C. Y. Inn, P. Hamill, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1129 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Zafonte, L.

L. Zafonte, W. Long, J. N. Pitts, Anal. Chem. 46, 1872 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

L. Zafonte, W. Long, J. N. Pitts, Anal. Chem. 46, 1872 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Environ.

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, D. Philen, T. McGee, Atmos. Environ. 13, 1197 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Atmosphere

W. F. J. Evans, J. B. Kerr, D. I. Wardle, J. C. McConnell, B. A. Ridley, H. I. Schiff, Atmosphere 14, 189 (1976).

Atmosphere J. Chem. Phys.

M. Hanabusa, C. C. Wang, S. Japar, D. K. Killinger, W. Fisher, Atmosphere J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2118 (1977).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

G. Ortgies, K.-H. Gericke, F. J. Comes, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 905 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, K. Asai, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 69 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, M. O. Rogers, S. D. Fischer, W. S. Heaps, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Weinstock, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 749 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Anderson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 319 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 319 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, T. McGee, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 331 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

D. Kley et al., J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 2513 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, P. M. Selzer, R. Munoz, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1181 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Burnett, E. B. Burnett, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5185 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Anderson, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 4645 (1971).

J. G. Anderson, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 7820 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Turco, R. C. Whitten, O. B. Toon, E. C. Y. Inn, P. Hamill, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 1129 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. C. Acuna, P. L. Hinds, R. J. Stattel, R. T. Cannon, J. K. Niswander, “The Sounding Rocket Division Airborne PCM System,” NASA Tech. Memo. X-743-8-30 (1979).

R. Reiter, R. Sladkovic, “On Periods of Extremely Slight and Extremely Strong Fluctuating Ozone Profiles in the Lower Stratosphere Based on Daily Balloon Radiosonde Soundings,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial International Ozone Symposium, Vol. 2, J. London, Ed. (NCAR, Boulder, 1980), p. 1112.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Frontal view of the gondola showing the overall cubic structure. The front radiator panels are prominant, with the viewing slot for the telescope. The pressure domes have been left off the package, permitting viewing of the interior of the experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radiator panels have been pulled back to yield a better view of the interior. The front pressure dome is shown in the foreground.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

View from the right rear quarter showing the rear radiator panel, the battery and telemetry shelf, and part of the rear pressure dome.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic shows the components of the lidar system alone. Details of the layout in the actual experiment varied slightly from this figure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic shows the layout of the laser systems and transmit optics. All wavelengths are in microns.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ozone profile measured by the lidar and the Dasibi on ascent. The concentration scale is linear. The error bars represent two standard deviations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ozone profile measured on descent. Note that the concentration range is 2.5 times less than on the previous slide, and the vertical scale is reduced.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Range-resolved ozone measurement. The local time is 1222 CDT. Azimuth ranged from 78.8° to 98.4°. Error bars represent two standard deviations.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Range-resolved ozone measurement. The local time is 1400 CDT. Azimuth ranged from 90.0° to 112.4°.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diurnal variation of hydroxyl concentration. Altitude is 34–36 km. Error bars shown are one standard deviation due to counting statistics. The width of each bar represents the temporal averaging period.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X + O 3 X O + O 2 X + O 3 X O + O 2 X O + O X + O 2 X O + O 3 X + 2 O 2 netO + O 3 2 O 2 ¯ net O 3 + O 3 3 O 2 ¯ .
C = I n σ A / 4 π Z 1 Z 2 O ( z ) exp ( 2 σ [ O 3 ] ) / Z 2 d z ] ,
C = I n σ η A / 4 π Z 1 Z 2 O ( z ) exp [ ( α 1 + α 2 ) Z ] / Z 2 dz ,
F ̅ + Ī = C ̅ B ̅ ( on - line ) , Ī = C ̅ B ̅ ( off - line ) .
O 3 + h ν laser O 2 + O ( D 1 ) , O ( D 1 ) + H 2 O OH * + OH * , OH * + M OH + M .

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