Abstract

The term photographic grain has been used in the jargon of the trade with three separate meanings: it applies sometimes to the grainy pattern visible in a highly enlarged photograph, sometimes to a particle of the developed silver in the image, and other times to the undeveloped silver halide particles of the original film. A review of some significant topics related to each of these three meanings is given, emphasizing the interactions between the three concepts.

© 1972 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966).
  2. P. G. Nutting, Philos. Mag. 26, series 6, 423 (1913).
  3. C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 4.
  4. C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 23.
  5. E. W. H. Selwyn, Photogr. J. 75, 571 (1935); Photogr. J. 82, 209 (1942).
  6. E. C. Doerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 669 (1962); in Photographic Science, Symposium: Paris, 1965, J. Pouradier, Ed. (Focal Press, London, 1967), p. 535.
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 4.
  8. R. B. Pontius, R. J. Newmiller, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 8, 196 (1964).
  9. T. H. James, W. Vanselow, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 1, 104 (1958).
  10. M. von Ardenne, Z. Angew. Phot. 2, 14 (1940).
  11. C. E. Hall, A. L. Schoen, J Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 281 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. D. Eshelby, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 176 (1953); Philos. Mag. 3, series 8, 440 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. H. James, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 3, 225 (1959).
  14. T. H. James, J. Chem. Phys. 11, 338 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. F. Mott, Photogr. J. 88B, 119 (1948).
  16. C. R. Berry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 615 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Jaenicke, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 6, 185 (1962).
  18. C. R. Berry, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 65 (1969).
  19. C. R. Berry, S. J. Marino, C. F. Oster, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 5, 332 (1961).
  20. R. W. Berriman, J. Photogr. Sci. 12, 121 (1964).
  21. H. E. Spencer, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 352 (1967).
  22. E. Klein, C. Moisar, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 67, 349, 949 (1963).
  23. W. Markocki, W. Romer, Korpuskularphotographie (Institut für Wissenschaftliche Photographie der Technische Hochschule Munchen, Munich, 1963), Vol. 4, p. 149.
  24. R. W. Berriman, R. H. Herz, Nature 180, 239 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. R. Berry, D. C. Skillman, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1900 (1962); Photogr. Sci. Eng. 6, 159 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. Klein, H. J. Metz, E. Moisar, Photogr. Korr. 99, 99 (1963); Photogr. Korr. 100, 55 (1964).
  27. J. F. Hamilton, L. E. Brady, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 414 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. F. Hamilton, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 57 (1967); Philos. Mag. 16, 1 (1967).
  29. F. Trautweiler, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 12, 138 (1968).
  30. Ref. 7, Chap. 5.
  31. D. A. Jones, J. W. Mitchell, Philos. Mag. 3, 1 (1958).
    [CrossRef]

1969

C. R. Berry, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 65 (1969).

1968

F. Trautweiler, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 12, 138 (1968).

1967

J. F. Hamilton, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 57 (1967); Philos. Mag. 16, 1 (1967).

H. E. Spencer, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 352 (1967).

1964

R. W. Berriman, J. Photogr. Sci. 12, 121 (1964).

J. F. Hamilton, L. E. Brady, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 414 (1964).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Pontius, R. J. Newmiller, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 8, 196 (1964).

1963

E. Klein, H. J. Metz, E. Moisar, Photogr. Korr. 99, 99 (1963); Photogr. Korr. 100, 55 (1964).

E. Klein, C. Moisar, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 67, 349, 949 (1963).

1962

C. R. Berry, D. C. Skillman, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1900 (1962); Photogr. Sci. Eng. 6, 159 (1962).
[CrossRef]

W. Jaenicke, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 6, 185 (1962).

E. C. Doerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 669 (1962); in Photographic Science, Symposium: Paris, 1965, J. Pouradier, Ed. (Focal Press, London, 1967), p. 535.
[CrossRef]

1961

C. R. Berry, S. J. Marino, C. F. Oster, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 5, 332 (1961).

1959

T. H. James, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 3, 225 (1959).

1958

T. H. James, W. Vanselow, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 1, 104 (1958).

D. A. Jones, J. W. Mitchell, Philos. Mag. 3, 1 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957

R. W. Berriman, R. H. Herz, Nature 180, 239 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1953

J. D. Eshelby, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 176 (1953); Philos. Mag. 3, series 8, 440 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1950

1948

N. F. Mott, Photogr. J. 88B, 119 (1948).

1943

T. H. James, J. Chem. Phys. 11, 338 (1943).
[CrossRef]

1941

C. E. Hall, A. L. Schoen, J Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 281 (1941).
[CrossRef]

1940

M. von Ardenne, Z. Angew. Phot. 2, 14 (1940).

1935

E. W. H. Selwyn, Photogr. J. 75, 571 (1935); Photogr. J. 82, 209 (1942).

1913

P. G. Nutting, Philos. Mag. 26, series 6, 423 (1913).

Berriman, R. W.

R. W. Berriman, J. Photogr. Sci. 12, 121 (1964).

R. W. Berriman, R. H. Herz, Nature 180, 239 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Berry, C. R.

C. R. Berry, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 65 (1969).

C. R. Berry, D. C. Skillman, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1900 (1962); Photogr. Sci. Eng. 6, 159 (1962).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Berry, S. J. Marino, C. F. Oster, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 5, 332 (1961).

C. R. Berry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40, 615 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Brady, L. E.

J. F. Hamilton, L. E. Brady, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 414 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Doerner, E. C.

Eshelby, J. D.

J. D. Eshelby, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 176 (1953); Philos. Mag. 3, series 8, 440 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Hall, C. E.

C. E. Hall, A. L. Schoen, J Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 281 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, J. F.

J. F. Hamilton, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 57 (1967); Philos. Mag. 16, 1 (1967).

J. F. Hamilton, L. E. Brady, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 414 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Herz, R. H.

R. W. Berriman, R. H. Herz, Nature 180, 239 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Jaenicke, W.

W. Jaenicke, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 6, 185 (1962).

James, T. H.

T. H. James, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 3, 225 (1959).

T. H. James, W. Vanselow, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 1, 104 (1958).

T. H. James, J. Chem. Phys. 11, 338 (1943).
[CrossRef]

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 4.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966).

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 4.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 23.

Jones, D. A.

D. A. Jones, J. W. Mitchell, Philos. Mag. 3, 1 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Klein, E.

E. Klein, C. Moisar, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 67, 349, 949 (1963).

E. Klein, H. J. Metz, E. Moisar, Photogr. Korr. 99, 99 (1963); Photogr. Korr. 100, 55 (1964).

Marino, S. J.

C. R. Berry, S. J. Marino, C. F. Oster, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 5, 332 (1961).

Markocki, W.

W. Markocki, W. Romer, Korpuskularphotographie (Institut für Wissenschaftliche Photographie der Technische Hochschule Munchen, Munich, 1963), Vol. 4, p. 149.

Mees, C. E. K.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 23.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966).

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 4.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 4.

Metz, H. J.

E. Klein, H. J. Metz, E. Moisar, Photogr. Korr. 99, 99 (1963); Photogr. Korr. 100, 55 (1964).

Mitchell, J. W.

D. A. Jones, J. W. Mitchell, Philos. Mag. 3, 1 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Moisar, C.

E. Klein, C. Moisar, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 67, 349, 949 (1963).

Moisar, E.

E. Klein, H. J. Metz, E. Moisar, Photogr. Korr. 99, 99 (1963); Photogr. Korr. 100, 55 (1964).

Mott, N. F.

N. F. Mott, Photogr. J. 88B, 119 (1948).

Newmiller, R. J.

R. B. Pontius, R. J. Newmiller, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 8, 196 (1964).

Nutting, P. G.

P. G. Nutting, Philos. Mag. 26, series 6, 423 (1913).

Oster, C. F.

C. R. Berry, S. J. Marino, C. F. Oster, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 5, 332 (1961).

Pontius, R. B.

R. B. Pontius, R. J. Newmiller, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 8, 196 (1964).

Romer, W.

W. Markocki, W. Romer, Korpuskularphotographie (Institut für Wissenschaftliche Photographie der Technische Hochschule Munchen, Munich, 1963), Vol. 4, p. 149.

Schoen, A. L.

C. E. Hall, A. L. Schoen, J Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 281 (1941).
[CrossRef]

Selwyn, E. W. H.

E. W. H. Selwyn, Photogr. J. 75, 571 (1935); Photogr. J. 82, 209 (1942).

Skillman, D. C.

C. R. Berry, D. C. Skillman, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1900 (1962); Photogr. Sci. Eng. 6, 159 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, H. E.

H. E. Spencer, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 352 (1967).

Trautweiler, F.

F. Trautweiler, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 12, 138 (1968).

Vanselow, W.

T. H. James, W. Vanselow, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 1, 104 (1958).

von Ardenne, M.

M. von Ardenne, Z. Angew. Phot. 2, 14 (1940).

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem.

E. Klein, C. Moisar, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 67, 349, 949 (1963).

J Opt. Soc. Am.

C. E. Hall, A. L. Schoen, J Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 281 (1941).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. D. Eshelby, J. Appl. Phys. 24, 176 (1953); Philos. Mag. 3, series 8, 440 (1958).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Berry, D. C. Skillman, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1900 (1962); Photogr. Sci. Eng. 6, 159 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Hamilton, L. E. Brady, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 414 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

T. H. James, J. Chem. Phys. 11, 338 (1943).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Photogr. Sci.

R. W. Berriman, J. Photogr. Sci. 12, 121 (1964).

Nature

R. W. Berriman, R. H. Herz, Nature 180, 239 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag.

D. A. Jones, J. W. Mitchell, Philos. Mag. 3, 1 (1958).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Nutting, Philos. Mag. 26, series 6, 423 (1913).

Photogr. J.

E. W. H. Selwyn, Photogr. J. 75, 571 (1935); Photogr. J. 82, 209 (1942).

N. F. Mott, Photogr. J. 88B, 119 (1948).

Photogr. Korr.

E. Klein, H. J. Metz, E. Moisar, Photogr. Korr. 99, 99 (1963); Photogr. Korr. 100, 55 (1964).

Photogr. Sci. Eng.

H. E. Spencer, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 352 (1967).

W. Jaenicke, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 6, 185 (1962).

C. R. Berry, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 65 (1969).

C. R. Berry, S. J. Marino, C. F. Oster, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 5, 332 (1961).

T. H. James, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 3, 225 (1959).

R. B. Pontius, R. J. Newmiller, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 8, 196 (1964).

T. H. James, W. Vanselow, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 1, 104 (1958).

J. F. Hamilton, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 11, 57 (1967); Philos. Mag. 16, 1 (1967).

F. Trautweiler, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 12, 138 (1968).

Z. Angew. Phot.

M. von Ardenne, Z. Angew. Phot. 2, 14 (1940).

Other

W. Markocki, W. Romer, Korpuskularphotographie (Institut für Wissenschaftliche Photographie der Technische Hochschule Munchen, Munich, 1963), Vol. 4, p. 149.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 4.

Ref. 7, Chap. 5.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 4.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 23.

C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process (Macmillan, New York, 1966).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Light micrograph of a photographic negative showing discrete grains of developed silver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electron micrographs of developed silver formed by (a) chemical development and (b) physical development.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electron Micrograph of the silver produced in the initial stages of development.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

High magnification electron micrograph of developed silver filaments. The linear features within the filaments are stacking faults and/or twins.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Model of the unit cell of a silver halide crystal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electron micrograph of undeveloped photographic grains show the cubic crystal habit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Electron micrograph of undeveloped photographic grains with octahedral habit.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Electron micrograph of undeveloped photographic grains with tabular forms.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Model showing the stacking arrangement of (111) planes in a silver halide crystal.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Light micrograph of very thin tabular silver bromide grains showing optical interference colors.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Transmission electron micrograph of a tabular silver bromide grain showing a network of intersecting dislocations.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Transmission electron micrograph of a heavily exposed silver bromide grain showing dislocation loops produced at the growing silver particles.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D = 0.434 n a .
σ n = 300 17.
A b C a B c A b C a B c A b C , etc .
( correct ) A b C a B c A b C a B c A b C , ( twinned ) A b C a B c A © B a C b A c B .

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