Abstract

An account is given of the properties of a number of experimental EMI photomultipliers possessing solar blind photocathodes, which were specially developed for a program of stellar photometry above the earth’s atmosphere (the measurements were made between 1963 and 1968). Quantum efficiency, dark current, cathode uniformity, and spectral response are examined in detail, and results are compared with data from similar detectors. Several discrepancies are evident between measurements made when the photomultipliers are tested immediately after manufacture and when they are tested several months later. A brief account is also given of the suitability of the photomultipliers for use in rocket environments. Additional information is also included for a number of photocells also produced by EMI. Typical spectral responses are given together with a number of plots of cathode uniformity at 2537 Å.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Taft, L. Apker, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 81 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. G. Kretschmar, Naval Ordnance Lab. Rep. 554 (Oct.1961).
  3. J. P. Causse, JRE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-8, (1962).
  4. A. H. Sommer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 356 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Dunkelman, Ultraviolet Photodetectors, NASA D-1718 (Aug.1963).
  6. C. B. Childs, Appl. Opt. 1, 711 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. Campbell, The Absolute Calibration of Rocket-Borne Stellar Photometers in the Region 2000Å-3000Å. Symposium on Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions, Munich (1968). ESRO Document SP-33.
  8. D. Miller, U.K. Meterorological office; private communication.
  9. W. N. Charman, J. Sci. Instrum. 2, 157 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Campbell, in press, Astrophys. Space Sci.9, 128 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Taft, H. R. Philip; General Electric internal memo.1953.
  12. A. H. Sommer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 356 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Yu. A. Shuba, I. V. Smirnova, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 2, 1321 (1960) [Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1201 (1960)].
  14. H. R. Philip, E. Taft; General Electric internal memo.1953.

1969 (1)

W. N. Charman, J. Sci. Instrum. 2, 157 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

J. P. Causse, JRE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-8, (1962).

C. B. Childs, Appl. Opt. 1, 711 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (2)

A. H. Sommer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 356 (1961).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Sommer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 356 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

Yu. A. Shuba, I. V. Smirnova, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 2, 1321 (1960) [Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1201 (1960)].

1953 (3)

H. R. Philip, E. Taft; General Electric internal memo.1953.

E. Taft, H. R. Philip; General Electric internal memo.1953.

E. Taft, L. Apker, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 81 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Apker, L.

E. Taft, L. Apker, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 81 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. W.

J. W. Campbell, The Absolute Calibration of Rocket-Borne Stellar Photometers in the Region 2000Å-3000Å. Symposium on Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions, Munich (1968). ESRO Document SP-33.

J. W. Campbell, in press, Astrophys. Space Sci.9, 128 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Causse, J. P.

J. P. Causse, JRE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-8, (1962).

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, J. Sci. Instrum. 2, 157 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Childs, C. B.

Dunkelman, L.

L. Dunkelman, Ultraviolet Photodetectors, NASA D-1718 (Aug.1963).

Kretschmar, G. G.

G. G. Kretschmar, Naval Ordnance Lab. Rep. 554 (Oct.1961).

Miller, D.

D. Miller, U.K. Meterorological office; private communication.

Philip, H. R.

E. Taft, H. R. Philip; General Electric internal memo.1953.

H. R. Philip, E. Taft; General Electric internal memo.1953.

Shuba, Yu. A.

Yu. A. Shuba, I. V. Smirnova, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 2, 1321 (1960) [Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1201 (1960)].

Smirnova, I. V.

Yu. A. Shuba, I. V. Smirnova, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 2, 1321 (1960) [Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1201 (1960)].

Sommer, A. H.

A. H. Sommer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 356 (1961).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Sommer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 356 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Taft, E.

H. R. Philip, E. Taft; General Electric internal memo.1953.

E. Taft, L. Apker, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 81 (1953).
[CrossRef]

E. Taft, H. R. Philip; General Electric internal memo.1953.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Fiz. Tverd. Tela (1)

Yu. A. Shuba, I. V. Smirnova, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 2, 1321 (1960) [Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1201 (1960)].

General Electric internal memo. (2)

H. R. Philip, E. Taft; General Electric internal memo.1953.

E. Taft, H. R. Philip; General Electric internal memo.1953.

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

E. Taft, L. Apker, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 43, 81 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Sci. Instrum. (1)

W. N. Charman, J. Sci. Instrum. 2, 157 (1969).
[CrossRef]

JRE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

J. P. Causse, JRE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-8, (1962).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. H. Sommer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 356 (1961).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Sommer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 356 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

L. Dunkelman, Ultraviolet Photodetectors, NASA D-1718 (Aug.1963).

G. G. Kretschmar, Naval Ordnance Lab. Rep. 554 (Oct.1961).

J. W. Campbell, in press, Astrophys. Space Sci.9, 128 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Campbell, The Absolute Calibration of Rocket-Borne Stellar Photometers in the Region 2000Å-3000Å. Symposium on Calibration Methods in the Ultraviolet and X-ray Regions, Munich (1968). ESRO Document SP-33.

D. Miller, U.K. Meterorological office; private communication.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Solar blind photomultipliers for use in the 1500–3300 Å region. Top 50-mm EMI quartz windowed CsTe; middle left, ASCOP 541F-05M 25-mm sapphire windowed CsTe; middleright; CBS CL1064 quartz windowed RbTe; lower left, 25-mm EMI glass windowed CsTe; lower right, 25-mm EMI glass windowed SbCs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral response of high work function photocathodes: Curve 1, KBr, Taft and Philip11; Curve 2, CsBr, Taft and Philip11; Curve 3, Semitransparent CsI, Sommer12; Curve 4, CuI, Shuba and Smirnova13; Curve 5, RbI, Taft and Apker1; Curve 6, CsI, Philip and Taft15; Curve 7, CsTe, Taft and Apker1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quantum efficiency vs wavelength for selected photomultipliers: Curve 1, EMI Experimental No. 5241; Curve 2, EMI Experimental No. 5293; Curve 3, EMI Experimental No. 5011; Curve 4, EMI Experimental No. 5266; Curve 5, EMI Experimental No. 5003; Curve 6, EMI Experimental No. 5292; Curve 7, EMI Experimental No. 5009; Curve 8, EMI Experimental No. 5240; and Curve 9, EMI Experimental No. 4059.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral response of selected photocells by Miller: Curve 1, photocell No. 5341 small anode plate; Curare 2, photocell No. 5007 small anode plate; Curve 3, photocell No. 5023 small anode plate; Curve 4, photocell No. 5029 large anode plate; and Curve 5, photocell No. 5240 large anode plate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ascop No. 1410: photocathode, antimony–cesium; source—2537 Å; faceplate diameter, 2.85 mm: 1, 1.2% uniformity; 2, 1.8% uniformity; 3, 25.9% uniformity; 4, 26.5% uniformity; 5, 64.7% uniformity; 6, 82.3% uniformity; 7, 88.2% uniformity; 8, 94.0% uniformity; and 9, 100.0% uniformity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

EMI CsTe SN 5301; window—sapphire; source—2537 Å; faceplate diameter 2.85 mm: 1, 5.0% uniformity; 2, 8.0% uniformity; 3, 6.5% uniformity; 4, 18.0% uniformity; 5, 40.0% uniformity; 5, 53.0% uniformity; 7, 63.0% uniformity; 8, 76.0% uniformity; 9, 86.8% uniformity; and 10, 100% uniformity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

E.M.I. CsTe SN 5300; window-quartz; source—2537Å; faceplate diameter 2.85 mm: 1, 0.3% uniformity; 2, 1.0% uniformity 3, 2.0% uniformity; 4, 8.0% uniformity; 5, 35.0% uniformity; 6, 69.0% uniformity; 7, 86.0% uniformity; 8, 93.0% unformity; and 9, 100% uniformity.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

E.M.I. CsTe SN 5243; window—quartz; source—2537 Å; faceplate diameter 2.85 mm: 1, 0.7% uniformity; 2, 1.0% uniformity; 3, 5.0% uniformity; 4, 22.0% uniformity; 5, 46.0% uniformity; 6, 71.0% uniformity; 7, 87.0% uniformity; and 8, 100% uniformity.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

E.M.I. CsTe 5293; window–quartz; source—2537 Å; faceplate diameter 2.85 mm: 1, 0.1% uniformity; 2, 2.0% uniformity; 3, 1.5% uniformity; 4, 1.0% uniformity; 5, 11.0% uniformity; 6, 31.0% uniformity; 7, 53.0% uniformity; 8, 100% uniformity; 9, 79.0% uniformity; and 10, 89.0% uniformity.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

ASCOP 10430 CsTe; window—sapphire; source—2537 Å; faceplate diameter 2.85 mm: 1, 2.3% uniformity; 2, 4.1% uniformity; 3, 5.3% uniformity; 4, 6.3% uniformity; 5, 8.6% uniformity; 6, 20.0% uniformity; 7, 66.6% uniformity; 8, 83.3% uniformity; 9, 86.6%; uniformity and 10, 100% uniformity.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

ASCOP 10430 CsTe; window—sapphire; source—1470 Å; faceplate 2.85 mm: 1, 0.8% uniformity; 2, 4.2% uniformity; 3, 13.8% uniformity; 4, 44.4% uniformity; 5, 87.5% uniformity; 6, 94.4% uniformity; 7, 97.2% uniformity; and 8, 100% uniformity.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) No. 5043, (b) No. 5029, (c) No. 5029, (d) No. 5007, and No. (e) 5341. 1, 10% uniformity; 2, 20% uniformity; 3, 30% uniformity; 4, 40% uniformity; 5, 50% uniformity; 6, 60% uniformity; 7, 70% uniformity; 8, 80% uniformity; 9, 90% uniformity; and 10, 100% uniformity.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Curve 1, EMI 5011 (Campbell); Curve 2, EMI 5009 (Charman); Curve 3, EMI 5003 (Campbell); Curve 4, EMI 5009 (Campbell); and Curve 5, EMI 5011 (Charman).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Ideal Technical Specification for Experimental Solar Blind Photomultiplier

Tables Icon

Table II Electrical Performance of EMI Unselected Solar Blind Photomultipliers

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Table III Performance of Selected EMI Solar Blind Photomultipliers

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