Abstract

Films of SiO2, SiOxNy, and TiO2, were prepared by reactive evaporation in ionized gases. Refractive index, absorptance, ir transmittance, stability, structure, and stress of these films were investigated. The SiO2 films had the same refractive index as bulk quartz glass and an absorption coefficient of less than 40 cm−1 at 190 nm. The internal stress in the SiO2 films was considerably lower than that for silicon oxide films prepared by conventional reactive evaporation. SiOxNy films formed extremely smooth surfaces when heated in air after evaporation. On unheated substrates TiO2 films with refractive indices up to 2.3 and an absorption coefficient of less than 40 cm−1 at 633 nm were obtained. All films were x-ray amorphous and proved to be mechanically stable and water resistant.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. B. Heany, J. J. Triolo, Appl. Opt. 9, 339 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Bauer, Ann. Phys. 19, 434 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Heitmann, Z. Angew. Phys. 21, 503 (1966).
  5. E. Ritter, Opt. Acta 9, 197 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Nishimura, T. Inagaki, H. Sasaki, Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 2, 87 (1966).
  7. G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, Appl. Opt. 8, 1115 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Schröder, N. Neuroth, Optik 26, 381 (1967/68).
  9. Electronics 41, 46 (1968).
  10. C. M. Drum, M. J. Rand, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4458 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. I. Frank, W. L. Moberg, J. Electrochem. Soc. 117, 524 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Y. Doo, D. R. Kerr, D. It. Nichols, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 61 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. L. Chu, J. R. Szedon, C. H. Lee, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 318 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Dudenhausen, G. Möllenstedt, Z. Angew. Phys. 27, 191 (1969).
  15. W. Heitmann, Thin Solid Films 5, 61 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Abelès, in Progress in Optics II, E. Wolf, Ed. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1963), p. 277.
  17. D. C. Cronemeyer, Phys. Rev. 113, 1222 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Hass, E. Ritter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 71 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. E. Ennos, Appl. Opt. 5, 51 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. G. Stoney, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A82, 172 (1909).
  21. A. E. Hill, G. R. Hoffman, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 13 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Ritter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

1971

1970

A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. B. Heany, J. J. Triolo, Appl. Opt. 9, 339 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. I. Frank, W. L. Moberg, J. Electrochem. Soc. 117, 524 (1970).
[CrossRef]

W. Heitmann, Thin Solid Films 5, 61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

B. Dudenhausen, G. Möllenstedt, Z. Angew. Phys. 27, 191 (1969).

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, Appl. Opt. 8, 1115 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

V. Y. Doo, D. R. Kerr, D. It. Nichols, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 61 (1968).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Chu, J. R. Szedon, C. H. Lee, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 318 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Electronics 41, 46 (1968).

C. M. Drum, M. J. Rand, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4458 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

G. Hass, E. Ritter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 71 (1967).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Hill, G. R. Hoffman, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 13 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

E. Ritter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Ennos, Appl. Opt. 5, 51 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Heitmann, Z. Angew. Phys. 21, 503 (1966).

Y. Nishimura, T. Inagaki, H. Sasaki, Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 2, 87 (1966).

1962

E. Ritter, Opt. Acta 9, 197 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1959

D. C. Cronemeyer, Phys. Rev. 113, 1222 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1934

G. Bauer, Ann. Phys. 19, 434 (1934).
[CrossRef]

1909

G. G. Stoney, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A82, 172 (1909).

Abelès, F.

F. Abelès, in Progress in Optics II, E. Wolf, Ed. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1963), p. 277.

Bauer, G.

G. Bauer, Ann. Phys. 19, 434 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Bradford, A. P.

Chu, T. L.

T. L. Chu, J. R. Szedon, C. H. Lee, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 318 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cronemeyer, D. C.

D. C. Cronemeyer, Phys. Rev. 113, 1222 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Doo, V. Y.

V. Y. Doo, D. R. Kerr, D. It. Nichols, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 61 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Drum, C. M.

C. M. Drum, M. J. Rand, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4458 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Dudenhausen, B.

B. Dudenhausen, G. Möllenstedt, Z. Angew. Phys. 27, 191 (1969).

Ennos, A. E.

Frank, R. I.

R. I. Frank, W. L. Moberg, J. Electrochem. Soc. 117, 524 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

Heany, J. B.

Heitmann, W.

W. Heitmann, Appl. Opt. 10, 2414 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Heitmann, Thin Solid Films 5, 61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

W. Heitmann, Z. Angew. Phys. 21, 503 (1966).

Hill, A. E.

A. E. Hill, G. R. Hoffman, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 13 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, G. R.

A. E. Hill, G. R. Hoffman, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 13 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, T.

Y. Nishimura, T. Inagaki, H. Sasaki, Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 2, 87 (1966).

Kerr, D. R.

V. Y. Doo, D. R. Kerr, D. It. Nichols, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 61 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

T. L. Chu, J. R. Szedon, C. H. Lee, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 318 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Moberg, W. L.

R. I. Frank, W. L. Moberg, J. Electrochem. Soc. 117, 524 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Möllenstedt, G.

B. Dudenhausen, G. Möllenstedt, Z. Angew. Phys. 27, 191 (1969).

Neuroth, N.

H. Schröder, N. Neuroth, Optik 26, 381 (1967/68).

Nichols, D. It.

V. Y. Doo, D. R. Kerr, D. It. Nichols, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 61 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, Y.

Y. Nishimura, T. Inagaki, H. Sasaki, Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 2, 87 (1966).

Ramsey, J. B.

Rand, M. J.

C. M. Drum, M. J. Rand, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4458 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, E.

G. Hass, E. Ritter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 71 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. Ritter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. Ritter, Opt. Acta 9, 197 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

Y. Nishimura, T. Inagaki, H. Sasaki, Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 2, 87 (1966).

Schröder, H.

H. Schröder, N. Neuroth, Optik 26, 381 (1967/68).

Stoney, G. G.

G. G. Stoney, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A82, 172 (1909).

Szedon, J. R.

T. L. Chu, J. R. Szedon, C. H. Lee, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 318 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Triolo, J. J.

Ann. Phys.

G. Bauer, Ann. Phys. 19, 434 (1934).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Brit. J. Appl. Phys.

A. E. Hill, G. R. Hoffman, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 13 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Electronics

Electronics 41, 46 (1968).

Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J.

Y. Nishimura, T. Inagaki, H. Sasaki, Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 2, 87 (1966).

J. Appl. Phys.

C. M. Drum, M. J. Rand, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4458 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

R. I. Frank, W. L. Moberg, J. Electrochem. Soc. 117, 524 (1970).
[CrossRef]

V. Y. Doo, D. R. Kerr, D. It. Nichols, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 61 (1968).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Chu, J. R. Szedon, C. H. Lee, J. Electrochem. Soc. 115, 318 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

E. Ritter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 3, 225 (1966).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, E. Ritter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 4, 71 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

E. Ritter, Opt. Acta 9, 197 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Optik

H. Schröder, N. Neuroth, Optik 26, 381 (1967/68).

Phys. Rev.

D. C. Cronemeyer, Phys. Rev. 113, 1222 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Roy. Soc. London

G. G. Stoney, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A82, 172 (1909).

Thin Solid Films

W. Heitmann, Thin Solid Films 5, 61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Z. Angew. Phys.

B. Dudenhausen, G. Möllenstedt, Z. Angew. Phys. 27, 191 (1969).

W. Heitmann, Z. Angew. Phys. 21, 503 (1966).

Other

F. Abelès, in Progress in Optics II, E. Wolf, Ed. (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1963), p. 277.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Infrared transmittance of a 0.6-μm thick SiO2 film on KBr. The broken line shows the transmittance of the uncoated KBr substrate. (Scale changes at 5 μm.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Infrared transmittance of a 0.6-μm thick SiOxNy film on KBr.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index of TiO2 films. Evaporation rates 2.5 Å/sec and 3 Å/sec.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Infrared transmittance of a TiO2 film of 0.4-μm thickness on KBr.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stress in SiO2 films during evaporation in ionized oxygen and after admittance of air (measuring point, 760 Torr).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Stress in SiOxNy, films prepared in ionized nitrogen.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stress in TiO2 films evaporated in ionized oxygen.

Equations (3)

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P = ρ = n 2 - 1 n 2 + 2 n m 2 + 2 n m 2 - 1 ,
α = 2 d n + n n s n 2 + n s [ ( T s / T ) 1 2 - 1 ] ,
σ = E D 2 / 6 r d .

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