Abstract

From OGO-4 airglow photometer data and computed lunar spectral irradiances at the subsatellite point, the highest radiance over clouds and lowest radiance over open ocean are examined near 3914 Å, 5577 Å, 5893 Å, 6225 Å, and 6300 Å in terms of bidirectional reflectance. The results are compared to and are consistent with mathematical models of the atmosphere developed by Plass and Kattawar, and with daytime measurements from OSO-3 by Neel, Griffin, and Millard.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Brennan, W. R. Bandeen, Appl. Opt. 9, 405 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, Appl. Opt. 10, 79 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. I. Reed, J. E. Blamont, in Space Research 7 (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1967), pp. 337–352.
  4. G. Warnecke, E. I. Reed, W. B. Fowler, E. R. Kreins, L. J. Allison, J. E. Blamont, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1329 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Arveson, R. N. Griffin, B. D. Pearson, Appl. Opt. 8, 2215 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone Press, London, 1955).
  7. D. L. Harris, in Planets and Satellites, G. P. Kuiper, P. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961), p. 304.
  8. H. N. Russell, Astrophys. J. 43, 117 (1916).
  9. V. G. Fessenkov, in Physics and Astronomy of the Moon, Z. Kopal, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961), Fig. 2, p. 104.
  10. F. E. Nicodemus, Appl. Opt. 9, 1474 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, Appl. Opt. 9, 1122 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, Appl. Opt. 7, 1129 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, Z. Sekara, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1960).
  14. C. Thompson, M. B. Wells, “A Comparison of Calculated and Measured Intensities of Sunlight Reflected by the Earth’s Atmosphere,” Tech. Rept. No. RRA-T703, Contr. NAS 2-5285 (Radiation Research Associates, Inc., Fort Worth, Texas, 1970).
  15. M. B. Wells, Radiation Research Associates, Inc., private communication, November1970.
  16. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, Appl. Opt. 8, 455 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. G. Neuymin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 690 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, Appl. Opt. 10, 738 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. B. Neel, R. N. Griffin, J. P. Millard, Solar Phys. 6, 235 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

1971 (2)

1970 (4)

1969 (4)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, Appl. Opt. 8, 455 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Warnecke, E. I. Reed, W. B. Fowler, E. R. Kreins, L. J. Allison, J. E. Blamont, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1329 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Arveson, R. N. Griffin, B. D. Pearson, Appl. Opt. 8, 2215 (1969).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Neel, R. N. Griffin, J. P. Millard, Solar Phys. 6, 235 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1916 (1)

H. N. Russell, Astrophys. J. 43, 117 (1916).

Allen, C. W.

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone Press, London, 1955).

Allison, L. J.

G. Warnecke, E. I. Reed, W. B. Fowler, E. R. Kreins, L. J. Allison, J. E. Blamont, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1329 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Arveson, J. C.

Bandeen, W. R.

Blamont, J. E.

G. Warnecke, E. I. Reed, W. B. Fowler, E. R. Kreins, L. J. Allison, J. E. Blamont, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1329 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Reed, J. E. Blamont, in Space Research 7 (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1967), pp. 337–352.

Brennan, B.

Coulson, K. L.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, Z. Sekara, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1960).

Dave, J. V.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, Z. Sekara, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1960).

Fessenkov, V. G.

V. G. Fessenkov, in Physics and Astronomy of the Moon, Z. Kopal, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961), Fig. 2, p. 104.

Fowler, W. B.

G. Warnecke, E. I. Reed, W. B. Fowler, E. R. Kreins, L. J. Allison, J. E. Blamont, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1329 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, R. N.

J. C. Arveson, R. N. Griffin, B. D. Pearson, Appl. Opt. 8, 2215 (1969).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Neel, R. N. Griffin, J. P. Millard, Solar Phys. 6, 235 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Harris, D. L.

D. L. Harris, in Planets and Satellites, G. P. Kuiper, P. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961), p. 304.

Kattawar, G. W.

Kreins, E. R.

G. Warnecke, E. I. Reed, W. B. Fowler, E. R. Kreins, L. J. Allison, J. E. Blamont, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1329 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Millard, J. P.

C. B. Neel, R. N. Griffin, J. P. Millard, Solar Phys. 6, 235 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Neel, C. B.

C. B. Neel, R. N. Griffin, J. P. Millard, Solar Phys. 6, 235 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Neuymin, H. G.

Nicodemus, F. E.

Pearson, B. D.

Plass, G. N.

Reed, E. I.

G. Warnecke, E. I. Reed, W. B. Fowler, E. R. Kreins, L. J. Allison, J. E. Blamont, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1329 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Reed, J. E. Blamont, in Space Research 7 (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1967), pp. 337–352.

Russell, H. N.

H. N. Russell, Astrophys. J. 43, 117 (1916).

Sekara, Z.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, Z. Sekara, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1960).

Thompson, C.

C. Thompson, M. B. Wells, “A Comparison of Calculated and Measured Intensities of Sunlight Reflected by the Earth’s Atmosphere,” Tech. Rept. No. RRA-T703, Contr. NAS 2-5285 (Radiation Research Associates, Inc., Fort Worth, Texas, 1970).

Warnecke, G.

G. Warnecke, E. I. Reed, W. B. Fowler, E. R. Kreins, L. J. Allison, J. E. Blamont, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1329 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wells, M. B.

C. Thompson, M. B. Wells, “A Comparison of Calculated and Measured Intensities of Sunlight Reflected by the Earth’s Atmosphere,” Tech. Rept. No. RRA-T703, Contr. NAS 2-5285 (Radiation Research Associates, Inc., Fort Worth, Texas, 1970).

M. B. Wells, Radiation Research Associates, Inc., private communication, November1970.

Appl. Opt. (8)

Astrophys. J. (1)

H. N. Russell, Astrophys. J. 43, 117 (1916).

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

G. Warnecke, E. I. Reed, W. B. Fowler, E. R. Kreins, L. J. Allison, J. E. Blamont, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 1329 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Solar Phys. (1)

C. B. Neel, R. N. Griffin, J. P. Millard, Solar Phys. 6, 235 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

V. G. Fessenkov, in Physics and Astronomy of the Moon, Z. Kopal, Ed. (Academic Press Inc., New York, 1961), Fig. 2, p. 104.

K. L. Coulson, J. V. Dave, Z. Sekara, Tables Related to Radiation Emerging from a Planetary Atmosphere with Rayleigh Scattering (University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1960).

C. Thompson, M. B. Wells, “A Comparison of Calculated and Measured Intensities of Sunlight Reflected by the Earth’s Atmosphere,” Tech. Rept. No. RRA-T703, Contr. NAS 2-5285 (Radiation Research Associates, Inc., Fort Worth, Texas, 1970).

M. B. Wells, Radiation Research Associates, Inc., private communication, November1970.

C. W. Allen, Astrophysical Quantities (Athlone Press, London, 1955).

D. L. Harris, in Planets and Satellites, G. P. Kuiper, P. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1961), p. 304.

E. I. Reed, J. E. Blamont, in Space Research 7 (North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1967), pp. 337–352.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The OGO-4 airglow photometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured nadir earth radiance and calculated lunar irradiance are used to obtain points of bidirectional reflectance at 3914 Å. Comparison is made to recent calculations of reflected radiance by Plass and Kattawar11,12 at 4000 Å. For the maximum radiance examples, the atmosphere is above lambert surface albedos of 1.0, 0.8, and 0.6, the dashed line representing a perfect white diffuser without atmosphere. For minimum radiance the surface albedo is zero and the aerosol content is varied. They used as normal aerosol content the Deirmendjian Haze C model and Elterman height distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extremes of bidirectional reflectance at 6300 Å with comparison to several model calculations. Maximum radiance examples are compared to a Plass-Kattawar spherical particle ice cloud of optical depth τ = 10 and underlying albedo 0 and 0.8, wavelength 7000 Å. Minimum radiance points generally fall below a Plass-Kattawar model atmosphere with deep ocean. The 6700-Å example was calculated by Thompson and Wells for the analysis of OSO-3 sunlit radiance using Deirmendjian Haze M and height distribution by Elterman. The Rayleigh scattering is from Coulson et al.13

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurements of the radiance of the sunlit and moonlit earth with cloud cover. OSO-3 daytime measurements by Neel, Griffin, and Millard were made near local noon. Normalization is made here to the maximum bidirectional reflectance point at 3914 Å for a comparison to measurements of reflected moonlight at other wavelengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurements of the radiance of the sunlit and moonlit earth through a clear atmosphere over ocean. OSO-3 daytime measurements were made below the spacecraft near local noon. Normalization is made with extreme minimum bidirectional reflectance measurement from OGO-4 at 3914 Å for comparison at other wavelengths.

Equations (1)

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ρ ¯ ( θ , ϕ , ζ 0 ) = L ¯ ( θ , ϕ , ζ 0 ) / E ¯ cos ζ 0 ,

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