Abstract

The behavior of various types of photomultipliers (CsAg cathodes and CsSb cathodes) at very low temperatures has been investigated and reported in the literature. No information was found on the behavior of photomultipliers having Ag-Bi-O-Cs photocathodes (S-10 type). A study was therefore made to investigate changes of the spectral sensitivity of two RCA 6217 photomultipliers as a function of temperature. The results show a behavior quite different from that of other types of photomultipliers. Efforts were made to separate dynode effects from cathode effects. No definite explanation as to the origin of this extraordinary behavior has been found.

© 1971 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. H. Seliger, C. A. Ziegler, Nucleonics 14, 49 (1956).
  2. W. P. Ball, R. Booth, M. MacGregor, Nucl. Instrum. 1, 71 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. E. Kinard, Nucleonics 15, 92 (1957).
  4. A. Coche, G. Laustriat, J. Phys. Rad. 20, 719 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Lontie-Bailliez, A. Meessen, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 73, 390 (1959).
  6. R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, IRE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-7, 80 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. T. Young, Appl. Opt. 2, 51 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. R. Boileau, F. D. Miller, Appl. Opt. 6, 1179 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

1963 (1)

1960 (1)

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, IRE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-7, 80 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (2)

A. Coche, G. Laustriat, J. Phys. Rad. 20, 719 (1959).
[CrossRef]

M. Lontie-Bailliez, A. Meessen, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 73, 390 (1959).

1957 (2)

W. P. Ball, R. Booth, M. MacGregor, Nucl. Instrum. 1, 71 (1957).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Kinard, Nucleonics 15, 92 (1957).

1956 (1)

H. H. Seliger, C. A. Ziegler, Nucleonics 14, 49 (1956).

Ball, W. P.

W. P. Ball, R. Booth, M. MacGregor, Nucl. Instrum. 1, 71 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Boileau, A. R.

Booth, R.

W. P. Ball, R. Booth, M. MacGregor, Nucl. Instrum. 1, 71 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Coche, A.

A. Coche, G. Laustriat, J. Phys. Rad. 20, 719 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Kinard, F. E.

F. E. Kinard, Nucleonics 15, 92 (1957).

Laustriat, G.

A. Coche, G. Laustriat, J. Phys. Rad. 20, 719 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Lontie-Bailliez, M.

M. Lontie-Bailliez, A. Meessen, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 73, 390 (1959).

MacGregor, M.

W. P. Ball, R. Booth, M. MacGregor, Nucl. Instrum. 1, 71 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Manning, J. J.

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, IRE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-7, 80 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Meessen, A.

M. Lontie-Bailliez, A. Meessen, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 73, 390 (1959).

Miller, F. D.

Murray, R. B.

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, IRE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-7, 80 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Seliger, H. H.

H. H. Seliger, C. A. Ziegler, Nucleonics 14, 49 (1956).

Young, A. T.

Ziegler, C. A.

H. H. Seliger, C. A. Ziegler, Nucleonics 14, 49 (1956).

Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles (1)

M. Lontie-Bailliez, A. Meessen, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 73, 390 (1959).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IRE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

R. B. Murray, J. J. Manning, IRE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-7, 80 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Rad. (1)

A. Coche, G. Laustriat, J. Phys. Rad. 20, 719 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. (1)

W. P. Ball, R. Booth, M. MacGregor, Nucl. Instrum. 1, 71 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Nucleonics (2)

F. E. Kinard, Nucleonics 15, 92 (1957).

H. H. Seliger, C. A. Ziegler, Nucleonics 14, 49 (1956).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Liquid nitrogen-cooled photomultiplier housing: 1, electronically controlled shutter; 2, evauated quartz window assembly (platinum heater shown immersed in 1.02-mm groove); 3, μ-metallic shield; 4, Bakelite holder for tube and shield; 5, copper cold finger; 6, Styrofoam insulation; 7, purge gas in/out; 8, liquid nitrogen in/out; 9, Kovar seal for the seven copper–constantan thermocouples indicated by ⊕; 10, Teflon spacers; 11, electrical connections from tube terminate in optionally heated baseplate. BNC connections are made externally.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Changes of relative response at various wavelengths of an RCA 6217 photomultiplier as function of time in various cooling experiments. TF and TS show the temperature (right-hand scale) as function of time for these experiments. (D) indicates diode operation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Changes of relative response at various wavelengths of an RCA 5819 photomultiplier as function of time in one cooling experiment. The temperature as function of time is indicated by curve TS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Changes of the relative spectral response of an RCA 6217 photomultiplier with respect to the response at 550 μm as a function of time with the corresponding temperatures. Upper graph: slow-cooling; experiment. Lower graph: fast-cooling experiment.

Metrics