Abstract

A 13th-century text in Old Norse, Konungs Skuggsjá (translated as The King’s Mirror), tells about a phenomenon that may be encountered in the Greenland Sea. It is called hafgerðingar (sea fences). The horizon is raised, and from there three giant waves come rolling in. Recently Lehn and Schroeder have explained the phenomenon as a superior mirage. I extend their analysis by introducing a periodic time dependence in the properties of the inversion layer, and show that also the illusion of incoming waves and an immediate danger may so be explained.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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Supplementary Material (5)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (1675 KB)      Parametrization: x0 = 111 km, r = 10 km. Inversion surface wavelength = 10 km, amplitude = 2 m. Eye height fixed at 3.5 m.
» Visualization 2: MP4 (3953 KB)      Parametrization: x0 = 111 km, r = 10 km. Inversion surface wavelength = 10 km, amplitude = 2 m. Eye height periodic 3.25 - 3.75 m. Distance ship 1 nautical mile.
» Visualization 3: MP4 (3884 KB)      Parametrization: x0 = 111 km, r = 10 km. Inversion surface wavelength = 10 km, amplitude = 2 m. Eye height periodic 3.25 - 3.75 m. Distance ship 12 nautical miles.
» Visualization 4: MP4 (3739 KB)      Parametrization: x0 = 101 km, r = 20 km. No inversion surface waves. Eye height periodic 3.25 - 3.75 m. Distance ship 1 nautical mile.
» Visualization 5: MP4 (3937 KB)      Parametrization: x0 = 101 km, r = 20 km. Inversion surface wavelength = 10 km, amplitude = 1 m. Eye height periodic 3.25 - 3.75 m. Distance ship 1 nautical mile.

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Figures (10)

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Tables (2)

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Equations (16)

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