Abstract

Sun glints are formed by specular reflections of the sun from capillary waves formed by wind blowing over water. These glints are normally colorless for a high sun or take on the color of the light source, such as orange–red during sunset or sunrise. However, when the glints are highly polarized by reflection near the Brewster angle, i.e., with relatively high sun they can change from colorless to a blue appearance caused by blue light leakage through a polarizing filter oriented orthogonal to the plane of polarization of the reflected light. Measurements are shown of crossed-polarizer transmission spectra exhibiting blue and near infrared light leakage for photographic polarizing filters and polarized sunglasses. A variety of photographs is shown to confirm blue light leakage as the source of the blue glint color.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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OSA Recommended Articles
Glitter and glints on water

David K. Lynch, David S. P. Dearborn, and James A. Lock
Appl. Opt. 50(28) F39-F49 (2011)

References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  37. J. J. Cael, R. L. Jones, R.-C. Liang, G. B. Trapani, and T.-F. Yeh, “Synthetic UV bleached polarizer and method for the manufacture thereof,” U.S. patent5,925,289 A (20 July, 1999), https://www.google.com/patents/US5925289 .
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2016 (1)

G. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and B. Cui, “Performance of eliminating sun glints reflected off wave surface by polarization filtering under influence of waves,” Optik 127, 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2013 (1)

K. Mangold, J. A. Shaw, and M. Vollmer, “The physics of near-infrared photography,” Eur. J. Phys. 34, S51–S71 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D 45, 105304 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

M. Ottaviani, K. Stamnes, J. Koskulics, H. Eide, S. R. Long, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Light reflection from water waves: suitable setup for a polarimetric investigation under controlled laboratory conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 715–728 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, C. Merck, S. Long, J. Koskulics, K. Stamnes, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Time-resolved polarimetry over water waves: relating glints and surface statistics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1638–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. A. Shaw, “A survey of infrared polarization in the outdoors,” Proc. SPIE 6660, 666006 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Vollmer and S. D. Gedzelman, “Colours of the sun and moon: the role of the optical air mass,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 299–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

E. J. Walsh, M. L. Banner, J. H. Churnside, J. A. Shaw, D. C. Vandemark, C. W. Wright, J. B. Jensen, and S. Lee, “Visual demonstration of three-scale sea-surface roughness under light wind conditions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 43, 1751–1762 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

L. Y. Ignatov, P. I. Lazarev, V. V. Nazarov, and N. A. Ovchinnikova, “Thin crystal film polarizers and retarders,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 79–90 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “Infrared polarization in the natural earth environment,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 129–138 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “The effect of instrument polarization sensitivity on sea surface remote sensing with infrared spectroradiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 820–827 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

F. J. Iannarilli, J. A. Shaw, S. H. Jones, and H. E. Scott, “Snapshot LWIR hyperspectral polarimetric imager for ocean surface sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 270–283 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (4)

C. R. Zeisse, C. P. McGrath, M. Littfin, and H. G. Hughes, “Infrared radiance of the wind-ruffled sea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1439–1452 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “Degree of linear polarization in spectral radiances for water-viewing infrared radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3157–3165 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, M. R. Descour, D. S. Sabatke, J. P. Garcia, and E. L. Dereniak, “Measurements of midwave and longwave infrared polarization from water,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 118–125 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “Glittering light on water,” Opt. Photon. News 10(3), 43–45 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

A. W. Cooper, E. C. Crittenden, E. A. Milne, P. L. Walker, E. Moss, and D. Gregoris, “Mid and far infrared measurements of sun glint from the sea surface,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 176–185 (1992).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

L. Wald and J.-M. Monget, “Sea surface winds from sun glitter observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2547–2555 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. J. Gunning and J. Foschaar, “Improvement in the transmission of iodine-polyvinyl alcohol polarizers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3229–3231 (1983).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

N. Levanon, “Determination of the sea surface slope distribution and wind velocity using sun glitter viewed from a synchronous satellite,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 1, 214–220 (1971).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

Balich, J. W.

J. J. Cael, J. W. Balich, P. V. Nagarkar, K. M. Vogel, and H. Sahouani, “Enhanced K-type polarizer,” U.S. patent6,814,899 B2 (9 November, 2004), https://www.google.com/patents/US6814899 .

Banner, M. L.

E. J. Walsh, M. L. Banner, J. H. Churnside, J. A. Shaw, D. C. Vandemark, C. W. Wright, J. B. Jensen, and S. Lee, “Visual demonstration of three-scale sea-surface roughness under light wind conditions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 43, 1751–1762 (2005).
[Crossref]

Beard, J. J.

J. J. Beard, “Reduction of solar glints from the sea with a linear polarizer,” (Defense Technical Information Center, 1976), https://archive.org/details/DTIC_ADA036152 .

Berke, C. M.

C. M. Berke, “Polarizer: dichroic dye in oriented polyacrylic acid/chitosan complex sheet,” U.S. patent4,440,541 A (3 April, 1984), https://www.google.com/patents/US4440541 .

Bobrov, Y.

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cael, J. J.

J. J. Cael, R. L. Jones, R.-C. Liang, G. B. Trapani, and T.-F. Yeh, “Synthetic UV bleached polarizer and method for the manufacture thereof,” U.S. patent5,925,289 A (20 July, 1999), https://www.google.com/patents/US5925289 .

J. J. Cael, J. W. Balich, P. V. Nagarkar, K. M. Vogel, and H. Sahouani, “Enhanced K-type polarizer,” U.S. patent6,814,899 B2 (9 November, 2004), https://www.google.com/patents/US6814899 .

Chenault, D. B.

Churnside, J. H.

E. J. Walsh, M. L. Banner, J. H. Churnside, J. A. Shaw, D. C. Vandemark, C. W. Wright, J. B. Jensen, and S. Lee, “Visual demonstration of three-scale sea-surface roughness under light wind conditions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 43, 1751–1762 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw and J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw and J. H. Churnside, “Fractal laser glints from the ocean surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1144–1150 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cooper, A. W.

A. W. Cooper, E. C. Crittenden, E. A. Milne, P. L. Walker, E. Moss, and D. Gregoris, “Mid and far infrared measurements of sun glint from the sea surface,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 176–185 (1992).
[Crossref]

Cox, C.

Crittenden, E. C.

A. W. Cooper, E. C. Crittenden, E. A. Milne, P. L. Walker, E. Moss, and D. Gregoris, “Mid and far infrared measurements of sun glint from the sea surface,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 176–185 (1992).
[Crossref]

Cui, B.

G. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and B. Cui, “Performance of eliminating sun glints reflected off wave surface by polarization filtering under influence of waves,” Optik 127, 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dearborn, D. S.

Dereniak, E. L.

J. A. Shaw, M. R. Descour, D. S. Sabatke, J. P. Garcia, and E. L. Dereniak, “Measurements of midwave and longwave infrared polarization from water,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 118–125 (1999).
[Crossref]

Descour, M. R.

J. A. Shaw, M. R. Descour, D. S. Sabatke, J. P. Garcia, and E. L. Dereniak, “Measurements of midwave and longwave infrared polarization from water,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 118–125 (1999).
[Crossref]

Egi, Y.

Y. Egi, T. Ishitani, and T. Nishi, “Display device,” U.S. patent9,164,313 B2 (20 October, 2015), https://www.google.com/patents/US9164313 .

Eide, H.

M. Ottaviani, K. Stamnes, J. Koskulics, H. Eide, S. R. Long, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Light reflection from water waves: suitable setup for a polarimetric investigation under controlled laboratory conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 715–728 (2008).
[Crossref]

Foschaar, J.

Garcia, J. P.

J. A. Shaw, M. R. Descour, D. S. Sabatke, J. P. Garcia, and E. L. Dereniak, “Measurements of midwave and longwave infrared polarization from water,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 118–125 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gedzelman, S. D.

M. Vollmer and S. D. Gedzelman, “Colours of the sun and moon: the role of the optical air mass,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 299–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Goldstein, D. L.

Gregoris, D.

A. W. Cooper, E. C. Crittenden, E. A. Milne, P. L. Walker, E. Moss, and D. Gregoris, “Mid and far infrared measurements of sun glint from the sea surface,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 176–185 (1992).
[Crossref]

Guinn, J. A.

Gunning, W. J.

Hale, G. M.

Hong, S. H.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D 45, 105304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hughes, H. G.

Iannarilli, F. J.

F. J. Iannarilli, J. A. Shaw, S. H. Jones, and H. E. Scott, “Snapshot LWIR hyperspectral polarimetric imager for ocean surface sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 270–283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ignatov, L. Y.

L. Y. Ignatov, P. I. Lazarev, V. V. Nazarov, and N. A. Ovchinnikova, “Thin crystal film polarizers and retarders,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 79–90 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ishitani, T.

Y. Egi, T. Ishitani, and T. Nishi, “Display device,” U.S. patent9,164,313 B2 (20 October, 2015), https://www.google.com/patents/US9164313 .

Jensen, J. B.

E. J. Walsh, M. L. Banner, J. H. Churnside, J. A. Shaw, D. C. Vandemark, C. W. Wright, J. B. Jensen, and S. Lee, “Visual demonstration of three-scale sea-surface roughness under light wind conditions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 43, 1751–1762 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D 45, 105304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. L.

J. J. Cael, R. L. Jones, R.-C. Liang, G. B. Trapani, and T.-F. Yeh, “Synthetic UV bleached polarizer and method for the manufacture thereof,” U.S. patent5,925,289 A (20 July, 1999), https://www.google.com/patents/US5925289 .

Jones, S. H.

F. J. Iannarilli, J. A. Shaw, S. H. Jones, and H. E. Scott, “Snapshot LWIR hyperspectral polarimetric imager for ocean surface sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 270–283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kattawar, G. W.

Können, G. P.

G. P. Können, Polarized Light in Nature (Cambridge University, 1985).

Koskulics, J.

M. Ottaviani, K. Stamnes, J. Koskulics, H. Eide, S. R. Long, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Light reflection from water waves: suitable setup for a polarimetric investigation under controlled laboratory conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 715–728 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, C. Merck, S. Long, J. Koskulics, K. Stamnes, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Time-resolved polarimetry over water waves: relating glints and surface statistics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1638–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kouznetsov, M.

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuchenkova, O.

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lazarev, P.

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lazarev, P. I.

L. Y. Ignatov, P. I. Lazarev, V. V. Nazarov, and N. A. Ovchinnikova, “Thin crystal film polarizers and retarders,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 79–90 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D 45, 105304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

E. J. Walsh, M. L. Banner, J. H. Churnside, J. A. Shaw, D. C. Vandemark, C. W. Wright, J. B. Jensen, and S. Lee, “Visual demonstration of three-scale sea-surface roughness under light wind conditions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 43, 1751–1762 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D 45, 105304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Levanon, N.

N. Levanon, “Determination of the sea surface slope distribution and wind velocity using sun glitter viewed from a synchronous satellite,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 1, 214–220 (1971).
[Crossref]

Liang, R.-C.

J. J. Cael, R. L. Jones, R.-C. Liang, G. B. Trapani, and T.-F. Yeh, “Synthetic UV bleached polarizer and method for the manufacture thereof,” U.S. patent5,925,289 A (20 July, 1999), https://www.google.com/patents/US5925289 .

Littfin, M.

Lock, J. A.

Long, S.

Long, S. R.

M. Ottaviani, K. Stamnes, J. Koskulics, H. Eide, S. R. Long, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Light reflection from water waves: suitable setup for a polarimetric investigation under controlled laboratory conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 715–728 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lynch, D. K.

Mangold, K.

K. Mangold, J. A. Shaw, and M. Vollmer, “The physics of near-infrared photography,” Eur. J. Phys. 34, S51–S71 (2013).
[Crossref]

Manko, A.

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

McGrath, C. P.

Merck, C.

Milne, E. A.

A. W. Cooper, E. C. Crittenden, E. A. Milne, P. L. Walker, E. Moss, and D. Gregoris, “Mid and far infrared measurements of sun glint from the sea surface,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 176–185 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mobley, C. D.

Monget, J.-M.

L. Wald and J.-M. Monget, “Sea surface winds from sun glitter observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2547–2555 (1983).
[Crossref]

Moss, E.

A. W. Cooper, E. C. Crittenden, E. A. Milne, P. L. Walker, E. Moss, and D. Gregoris, “Mid and far infrared measurements of sun glint from the sea surface,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 176–185 (1992).
[Crossref]

Munk, W.

Nagarkar, P. V.

J. J. Cael, J. W. Balich, P. V. Nagarkar, K. M. Vogel, and H. Sahouani, “Enhanced K-type polarizer,” U.S. patent6,814,899 B2 (9 November, 2004), https://www.google.com/patents/US6814899 .

Nayek, P.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D 45, 105304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nazarov, V.

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nazarov, V. V.

L. Y. Ignatov, P. I. Lazarev, V. V. Nazarov, and N. A. Ovchinnikova, “Thin crystal film polarizers and retarders,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 79–90 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nishi, T.

Y. Egi, T. Ishitani, and T. Nishi, “Display device,” U.S. patent9,164,313 B2 (20 October, 2015), https://www.google.com/patents/US9164313 .

Ottaviani, M.

M. Ottaviani, C. Merck, S. Long, J. Koskulics, K. Stamnes, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Time-resolved polarimetry over water waves: relating glints and surface statistics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1638–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, K. Stamnes, J. Koskulics, H. Eide, S. R. Long, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Light reflection from water waves: suitable setup for a polarimetric investigation under controlled laboratory conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 715–728 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ovchinnikova, N.

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ovchinnikova, N. A.

L. Y. Ignatov, P. I. Lazarev, V. V. Nazarov, and N. A. Ovchinnikova, “Thin crystal film polarizers and retarders,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 79–90 (2002).
[Crossref]

Paukshto, M.

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Paukshto, M. V.

M. V. Paukshto and L. D. Silverstein, “Color correcting polarizer,” U.S. patent7,144,608 B2 (5 December, 2006), https://www.google.com/patents/US7144608 .

Plass, G. N.

Protsenko, P.

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Querry, M. R.

Remizov, S.

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sabatke, D. S.

J. A. Shaw, M. R. Descour, D. S. Sabatke, J. P. Garcia, and E. L. Dereniak, “Measurements of midwave and longwave infrared polarization from water,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 118–125 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sahouani, H.

J. J. Cael, J. W. Balich, P. V. Nagarkar, K. M. Vogel, and H. Sahouani, “Enhanced K-type polarizer,” U.S. patent6,814,899 B2 (9 November, 2004), https://www.google.com/patents/US6814899 .

Schuler, N. W.

N. W. Schuler, “Iodine stained light polarizer,” U.S. patent4,166,871 A (4 September, 1979), https://www.google.com/patents/US4166871 .

Scott, H. E.

F. J. Iannarilli, J. A. Shaw, S. H. Jones, and H. E. Scott, “Snapshot LWIR hyperspectral polarimetric imager for ocean surface sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 270–283 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shaw, J. A.

K. Mangold, J. A. Shaw, and M. Vollmer, “The physics of near-infrared photography,” Eur. J. Phys. 34, S51–S71 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “A survey of infrared polarization in the outdoors,” Proc. SPIE 6660, 666006 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. J. Walsh, M. L. Banner, J. H. Churnside, J. A. Shaw, D. C. Vandemark, C. W. Wright, J. B. Jensen, and S. Lee, “Visual demonstration of three-scale sea-surface roughness under light wind conditions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 43, 1751–1762 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “Infrared polarization in the natural earth environment,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 129–138 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “The effect of instrument polarization sensitivity on sea surface remote sensing with infrared spectroradiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 820–827 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “Polarimetric measurements of long-wave infrared radiance from water,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5985–5990 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. J. Iannarilli, J. A. Shaw, S. H. Jones, and H. E. Scott, “Snapshot LWIR hyperspectral polarimetric imager for ocean surface sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 270–283 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “Glittering light on water,” Opt. Photon. News 10(3), 43–45 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, M. R. Descour, D. S. Sabatke, J. P. Garcia, and E. L. Dereniak, “Measurements of midwave and longwave infrared polarization from water,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 118–125 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “Degree of linear polarization in spectral radiances for water-viewing infrared radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3157–3165 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw and J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw and J. H. Churnside, “Fractal laser glints from the ocean surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1144–1150 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, Optics in the Air: Observing Optical Phenomena through Airplane Windows (SPIE, 2017).

M. Vollmer and J. A. Shaw, “Atmospheric optics in the near infrared,” Appl. Opt. (this issue).

Shin, S.-T.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D 45, 105304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Silverstein, L. D.

M. V. Paukshto and L. D. Silverstein, “Color correcting polarizer,” U.S. patent7,144,608 B2 (5 December, 2006), https://www.google.com/patents/US7144608 .

Stamnes, K.

M. Ottaviani, C. Merck, S. Long, J. Koskulics, K. Stamnes, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Time-resolved polarimetry over water waves: relating glints and surface statistics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1638–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, K. Stamnes, J. Koskulics, H. Eide, S. R. Long, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Light reflection from water waves: suitable setup for a polarimetric investigation under controlled laboratory conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 715–728 (2008).
[Crossref]

Su, W.

M. Ottaviani, K. Stamnes, J. Koskulics, H. Eide, S. R. Long, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Light reflection from water waves: suitable setup for a polarimetric investigation under controlled laboratory conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 715–728 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, C. Merck, S. Long, J. Koskulics, K. Stamnes, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Time-resolved polarimetry over water waves: relating glints and surface statistics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1638–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

Trapani, G. B.

J. J. Cael, R. L. Jones, R.-C. Liang, G. B. Trapani, and T.-F. Yeh, “Synthetic UV bleached polarizer and method for the manufacture thereof,” U.S. patent5,925,289 A (20 July, 1999), https://www.google.com/patents/US5925289 .

Tyo, J. S.

Vandemark, D. C.

E. J. Walsh, M. L. Banner, J. H. Churnside, J. A. Shaw, D. C. Vandemark, C. W. Wright, J. B. Jensen, and S. Lee, “Visual demonstration of three-scale sea-surface roughness under light wind conditions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 43, 1751–1762 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vogel, K. M.

J. J. Cael, J. W. Balich, P. V. Nagarkar, K. M. Vogel, and H. Sahouani, “Enhanced K-type polarizer,” U.S. patent6,814,899 B2 (9 November, 2004), https://www.google.com/patents/US6814899 .

Vollmer, M.

K. Mangold, J. A. Shaw, and M. Vollmer, “The physics of near-infrared photography,” Eur. J. Phys. 34, S51–S71 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Vollmer and S. D. Gedzelman, “Colours of the sun and moon: the role of the optical air mass,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 299–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Vollmer and J. A. Shaw, “Atmospheric optics in the near infrared,” Appl. Opt. (this issue).

Wald, L.

L. Wald and J.-M. Monget, “Sea surface winds from sun glitter observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2547–2555 (1983).
[Crossref]

Walker, P. L.

A. W. Cooper, E. C. Crittenden, E. A. Milne, P. L. Walker, E. Moss, and D. Gregoris, “Mid and far infrared measurements of sun glint from the sea surface,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 176–185 (1992).
[Crossref]

Walsh, E. J.

E. J. Walsh, M. L. Banner, J. H. Churnside, J. A. Shaw, D. C. Vandemark, C. W. Wright, J. B. Jensen, and S. Lee, “Visual demonstration of three-scale sea-surface roughness under light wind conditions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 43, 1751–1762 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and B. Cui, “Performance of eliminating sun glints reflected off wave surface by polarization filtering under influence of waves,” Optik 127, 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

G. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and B. Cui, “Performance of eliminating sun glints reflected off wave surface by polarization filtering under influence of waves,” Optik 127, 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wiscombe, W.

M. Ottaviani, K. Stamnes, J. Koskulics, H. Eide, S. R. Long, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Light reflection from water waves: suitable setup for a polarimetric investigation under controlled laboratory conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 715–728 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, C. Merck, S. Long, J. Koskulics, K. Stamnes, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Time-resolved polarimetry over water waves: relating glints and surface statistics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1638–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wright, C. W.

E. J. Walsh, M. L. Banner, J. H. Churnside, J. A. Shaw, D. C. Vandemark, C. W. Wright, J. B. Jensen, and S. Lee, “Visual demonstration of three-scale sea-surface roughness under light wind conditions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 43, 1751–1762 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, G. H.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D 45, 105304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yeh, T.-F.

J. J. Cael, R. L. Jones, R.-C. Liang, G. B. Trapani, and T.-F. Yeh, “Synthetic UV bleached polarizer and method for the manufacture thereof,” U.S. patent5,925,289 A (20 July, 1999), https://www.google.com/patents/US5925289 .

Yoon, S.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D 45, 105304 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeisse, C. R.

Zhang, Z.

G. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and B. Cui, “Performance of eliminating sun glints reflected off wave surface by polarization filtering under influence of waves,” Optik 127, 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (10)

D. K. Lynch, D. S. Dearborn, and J. A. Lock, “Glitter and glints on water,” Appl. Opt. 50, F39–F49 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw and J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. A. Guinn, G. N. Plass, and G. W. Kattawar, “Sunlight glitter on a wind-ruffled sea: further studies,” Appl. Opt. 18, 842–849 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. Ottaviani, C. Merck, S. Long, J. Koskulics, K. Stamnes, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Time-resolved polarimetry over water waves: relating glints and surface statistics,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1638–1648 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. D. Mobley, “Polarized reflectance and transmittance of properties of windblown sea surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 54, 4828–4849 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “Degree of linear polarization in spectral radiances for water-viewing infrared radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3157–3165 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “Polarimetric measurements of long-wave infrared radiance from water,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5985–5990 (2001).
[Crossref]

W. J. Gunning and J. Foschaar, “Improvement in the transmission of iodine-polyvinyl alcohol polarizers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3229–3231 (1983).
[Crossref]

Eur. J. Phys. (2)

K. Mangold, J. A. Shaw, and M. Vollmer, “The physics of near-infrared photography,” Eur. J. Phys. 34, S51–S71 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Vollmer and S. D. Gedzelman, “Colours of the sun and moon: the role of the optical air mass,” Eur. J. Phys. 27, 299–309 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. (1)

E. J. Walsh, M. L. Banner, J. H. Churnside, J. A. Shaw, D. C. Vandemark, C. W. Wright, J. B. Jensen, and S. Lee, “Visual demonstration of three-scale sea-surface roughness under light wind conditions,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 43, 1751–1762 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (2)

M. Ottaviani, K. Stamnes, J. Koskulics, H. Eide, S. R. Long, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Light reflection from water waves: suitable setup for a polarimetric investigation under controlled laboratory conditions,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 715–728 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “The effect of instrument polarization sensitivity on sea surface remote sensing with infrared spectroradiometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 820–827 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

L. Wald and J.-M. Monget, “Sea surface winds from sun glitter observations,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2547–2555 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S.-T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D 45, 105304 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (1)

N. Levanon, “Determination of the sea surface slope distribution and wind velocity using sun glitter viewed from a synchronous satellite,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 1, 214–220 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

Y. Bobrov, O. Kuchenkova, M. Kouznetsov, P. Lazarev, A. Manko, V. Nazarov, N. Ovchinnikova, M. Paukshto, P. Protsenko, and S. Remizov, “LCD applications of thin-crystal-film polarizers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 12, 125–133 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. A. Shaw, “Glittering light on water,” Opt. Photon. News 10(3), 43–45 (1999).
[Crossref]

Optik (1)

G. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, and B. Cui, “Performance of eliminating sun glints reflected off wave surface by polarization filtering under influence of waves,” Optik 127, 3143–3149 (2016).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (6)

L. Y. Ignatov, P. I. Lazarev, V. V. Nazarov, and N. A. Ovchinnikova, “Thin crystal film polarizers and retarders,” Proc. SPIE 4658, 79–90 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. W. Cooper, E. C. Crittenden, E. A. Milne, P. L. Walker, E. Moss, and D. Gregoris, “Mid and far infrared measurements of sun glint from the sea surface,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 176–185 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, M. R. Descour, D. S. Sabatke, J. P. Garcia, and E. L. Dereniak, “Measurements of midwave and longwave infrared polarization from water,” Proc. SPIE 3754, 118–125 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. J. Iannarilli, J. A. Shaw, S. H. Jones, and H. E. Scott, “Snapshot LWIR hyperspectral polarimetric imager for ocean surface sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 270–283 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “A survey of infrared polarization in the outdoors,” Proc. SPIE 6660, 666006 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. A. Shaw, “Infrared polarization in the natural earth environment,” Proc. SPIE 4819, 129–138 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

M. Vollmer and J. A. Shaw, “Atmospheric optics in the near infrared,” Appl. Opt. (this issue).

N. W. Schuler, “Iodine stained light polarizer,” U.S. patent4,166,871 A (4 September, 1979), https://www.google.com/patents/US4166871 .

C. M. Berke, “Polarizer: dichroic dye in oriented polyacrylic acid/chitosan complex sheet,” U.S. patent4,440,541 A (3 April, 1984), https://www.google.com/patents/US4440541 .

J. J. Cael, R. L. Jones, R.-C. Liang, G. B. Trapani, and T.-F. Yeh, “Synthetic UV bleached polarizer and method for the manufacture thereof,” U.S. patent5,925,289 A (20 July, 1999), https://www.google.com/patents/US5925289 .

J. J. Cael, J. W. Balich, P. V. Nagarkar, K. M. Vogel, and H. Sahouani, “Enhanced K-type polarizer,” U.S. patent6,814,899 B2 (9 November, 2004), https://www.google.com/patents/US6814899 .

M. V. Paukshto and L. D. Silverstein, “Color correcting polarizer,” U.S. patent7,144,608 B2 (5 December, 2006), https://www.google.com/patents/US7144608 .

Y. Egi, T. Ishitani, and T. Nishi, “Display device,” U.S. patent9,164,313 B2 (20 October, 2015), https://www.google.com/patents/US9164313 .

J. J. Beard, “Reduction of solar glints from the sea with a linear polarizer,” (Defense Technical Information Center, 1976), https://archive.org/details/DTIC_ADA036152 .

G. P. Können, Polarized Light in Nature (Cambridge University, 1985).

J. A. Shaw, Optics in the Air: Observing Optical Phenomena through Airplane Windows (SPIE, 2017).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Sun glints combining to form a glitter path on the ocean.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Polarization-dependent reflectivity of a flat water surface with index of refraction = 1.331 for red light [16].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Degree of polarization for red light reflected from a flat water surface. The glints remain 90% polarized for angles of 45°–61°.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Wave-slope distribution for 3    m / s wind speed according to the Gaussian term of the Cox–Munk model for a clean water surface and equal air and water temperatures [5].
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Close-up view of sun glints on the ocean with a polarizer rotated for maximum glint brightness.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Rotating the polarizer to minimize the glint brightness revealed numerous blue glints.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Office lights photographed through (a) no filter, (b) one polarizer, and (c) two crossed polarizers.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Cross-polarization transmittance spectrum of polarizing filter oriented orthogonal to a second broadband polarizer.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Reflection from a calm lake surface with the sun 1.2° from the Brewster angle (19 May 2016, 1529 UTC, solar elevation angle = 35.8 ° ) and the polarizer rotated for maximum glint brightness.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Reflection from a calm lake surface with the sun 1.2° from the Brewster angle (19 May 2016, 1529 UTC, solar elevation angle = 35.8 ° ) and the polarizer rotated for minimum glint brightness. A violet–blue glint is visible near the bottom of the image.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Close-up photograph of the sun reflection on a calm lake surface with the sun 1.2° from the Brewster angle (same time as Fig. 10) and the polarizer rotated for maximum glint brightness.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Close-up photograph of the sun reflection on a calm lake surface with the sun 1.2° from the Brewster angle (same time as Fig. 10) and the polarizer rotated for minimum glint brightness.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Transmission spectrum of Balzer sunglasses with a particularly strong blue light leakage that allows the observer to easily see blue glints on water, cars, and even patches of ice on the road.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Close-up photograph of a single sun glint on a calm water surface at the Alhambra in Granada, Spain, photographed with a smartphone camera viewing the scene through the sunglasses whose transmission is plotted in Fig. 13, oriented for minimum glint brightness (Samsung Galaxy S4, automatic setting).

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