Abstract

A modified Kirchhoff approximation (MKA) is developed for the scattering of light by randomly oriented crystals. The reflected and transmitted near fields are calculated from ray tracing; the corresponding far fields are then obtained via the vector Kirchhoff integral. On the shadow side of the particle, an additional near field exactly cancels the incident field and causes the forward diffraction. MKA contains a particle size dependence, which is not included in ray optics treatments, and satisfactory results can be obtained for size parameters larger than ten. The scattering phase functions and degrees of linear polarization are calculated for some hexagonal and cubic water ice crystals using MKA. The Kirchhoff approximation for particles other than crystals is discussed, and attention is paid to the backscattering enhancement due to the cyclic passage of internally or multiply externally reflected electromagnetic waves.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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