Non-equilibrium stochastic effects are investigated for 3D coupled systems. The effects of electromagnetic waves (EM) propagating through the ionosphere in the presence of scintillation producing irregularities/layers depend on frequency ranges. We analyze scattering and EM wave trapping in the layers/ducts formed by the ionospheric irregularities. Article not available.
© 2015 Optical Society of AmericaPDF Article
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