A propagating surface plasmon consists of the coupled oscillations between an electromagnetic wave and the free electrons on the surface of a host conductor. Plasmons are not constrained by the optical diffraction limit, and inherently possess small mode sizes, making them a natural candidate for accessing optical nonlinear effects. Mixed plasmon/photon second–order nonlinearities have been demonstrated [1,2], but we wanted to explore plasmon-to-plasmon interactions in the vicinity of a nonlinear dielectric substrate such as lithium niobate (LiNbO3). Lithium niobate has a large nonlinear coefficient and can also be engineered to host embedded waveguides, making it a versatile material.
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