We simulate quantum degenerate Bose gases at finite temperatures in a grand canonical ensemble and use the Bose-Hubbard model which can describe the dynamics of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical and magnetic lattices. We study ultracold atoms with the gauge P-representation in 1D with 1, 2 (double well), 3, 7 and 11 sites and study quantum correlations and other physical quantities at different temperatures across the superfluid to Mott insulator quantum phase transition. Moreover, using a truncated number-state basis and the gauge P-representation, we show that the Mott lobes are not present unless the temperature is below a certain value.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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