Several carbazole-based monolithic and fully functional polymeric photorefractive materials were synthesized using simple synthetic approaches. In the design and synthesis of polymers, a post-azo-coupling reaction was selected for introducing the azo chromophore to the carbazole group. Without any plasticizer, TBC energy transfer could be observed in all polymers with Tg below 100 oC. The best photorefractive performance was observed with polymer 12 showing 140cm-1 of TBC gain and 8.3% of diffraction efficiency at zero applied electric field without any extra sensitizer. Based on the principles for organic molecules exhibiting photorefractive response, six monolithic organic compounds with push-pull structure were designed and prepared via Vilsmeier and Knovenagel reactions. All of these six monolithic compounds can form glassy state. Most of them can form films with good optical quality. Compound M2 showed the best photorefractive performance, its gain coefficient was as high as 372cm-1 at an external electric field of 50 V/μm.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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