Atom lithography uses neutral atoms, e. g. cesium, to produce small structures with nanometer resolution on wafers by transforming a light intensity pattern into a density pattern of an atomic beam. In order to achieve a 2D complex structure, two elementary holographic gratings are written in an iron-doped lithium-niobate crystal, using light with the wavelength 852 nm. Illuminating the crystal with the reference wave simultaneously reconstructs two signal waves, and these three beams interfere and create a light pattern with two dierent grating periods. This light pattern is imprinted onto a beam of cesium atoms. A characterization of the "holographic mirror" as well as the results of the atom lithography experiment are presented, and some further extensions and perspectives of this new method are discussed.
© 2003 Optical Society of AmericaPDF Article