This paper proposes an empirical equation to determine the soiling ratio (SR) at any instant of time of the day based on the Sun’s angle of incidence (AOI) on the module and a midday SR. The modelled SR was determined with an RMS deviation of ±0.21% and ±0.28% respectively for a high and medium irradiance day, whereas the deviation increased to ±1.04% in case of low irradiance due to clouds.

© 2018 The Author(s)

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