I will discuss recent development of hierarchical fabrication techniques for three-dimensional plasmonic metamaterials in optical frequencies based on electron-beam lithography overlay. Also, the recent effort of bottom-up approach using nanoparticles and self-assembled materials for isotropic 3D metamaterials will be discussed. Such unique fabrication techniques will provide the opportunity to achieve true isotropic metamaterials.

© 2018 Optical Society of Japan

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