Local area networks and subscriber loops require optical passive or active devices for their reliable and cost-effective configurations.1–3 Glass waveguides are one of the promising candidates for such passive devices because of their low loss, low cost, and mass productivity. Ideally Y-branches are polarization-insensitive and wavelength-flattened and, therefore, suited to fabricate high-performance couplers. Here we report preliminary test results of planar waveguide 1 × 2 and 1×4 couplers incorporating Y-branches in glass by a purely thermal ion-exchange process with two steps.4

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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