Glass waveguides have attracted a lot of interest in integrated optics because of their low loss and low cost. Ion exchange has been the most popular technique tor fabrication of waveguides in glass substrates.1 Among the ions used to achieve guidance in glass,2 K+ is more suitable for singlemode waveguide fabrication.3 We recently carried out the diffusion and modal characterization of K+-Na+ exchanged waveguides and have demonstrated that low-loss single-mode waveguides (propagation loss of ~0.1 dB/ cm) can be manufactured in a flame polished substrate (Corning 0211).3 In the present work, we have investigated experimentally the effect of external factors (e.g. strain, temperature, humidity) on optical behavior of K+-Na+ exchanged waveguides. We have also examined theoretically the performance of glass waveguide tapered couplers and directional coupler wavelength filters.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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