As the bandwidth of optical modulators increases it is important to develop techniques for measuring their frequency response which do not depend on the precise calibration of high-speed photodiodes. We describe here a technique using the nonlinear mixing of two microwave signals in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to give a fixed low-frequency modulation which is used to calibrate a modulator to millimeter wave frequencies.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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