The propagation of light in an inhomogeneous planar optical waveguide (Fig. 1) under the weakly guiding approximation is governed by the scalar Helmholtz differential equation.1 By proper nondimensionalization and introduction of the well-known normalized frequency parameter of the waveguide V, one can rewrite the Helmholtz differential equation as a Schrodinger-type equation2:

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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