Various passive components such as optical branching/mixing circuits, multi/demultiplexers, and optical switches are required in optical communications systems. Bulk-type components as well as fiber-optic components appear to have some limitations with regard to productivity, stability, and suitability for integration. A possible approach to overcoming this problem is to use fiber-compatible silica-based planar waveguides to form integrated- optic circuits.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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