As the bandwidth required by carriers increases, and more of the available erbium spectrum is used in WDM systems, second and third order nonlinear effects are impacting erbium amplifier design One nonlinear effect, which has recently become important, is the impact of temperature on the erbium spectrum [1,2], A full characterisation of the erbium over the full temperature range, in small temperature steps is a time-consuming, resource expensive exercise.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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