Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn [1] have shown that probabilistic quantum logic operations can be implemented using linear optical elements, such as beam splitters and phase shifters, additional photons (ancilla) and post-selection based on the results of measurements on the ancilla. This may seem somewhat surprising, since logic operations are inherently nonlinear. Here the nonlinearity is produced by the quantum measurement process used in the post-selection. Nonlinearities of this kind are inherently quantum-mechanical and have no classical analogy.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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