S. Petit, K. Ota, M. Takamatsu, N. Sato, N. Mishima, Y. Oikawa, and N. Shiga, "High-speed Opto-electronic VOA with an Integrated Quasi-loss-less Photo-diode and a Temperature Control Module,"
in National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference,
OSA Technical Digest
(Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JTh2A.6.
A unique PMN-PT electro-optic type VOA configuration is proposed. The VOA includes a Peltier element that enables a 100-ns range operation speed and an integrated PD that acts as a quasi-loss-less input tap-monitor.