Optical vortex beams1) carry an annular spatial profile and a nonzero orbital angular momentum of ℓh (where is the topological charge) per photon, owing to the phase singularity, and they have been investigated in various applications, such as optical trapping, optical communication, quantum optics, and super-resolution fluorescence microscopes. In particular, visible vortex sources with a selective handedness should be applied to nano/micro fabrication, for instance, the formation of chiral structured materials.

© 2019 Japan Society of Applied Physics, The Optical Society (OSA)

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