Nowadays, with the rise of environmental awareness and energy crisis, sustainable energy has been widely studied. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is one of the most environment friendly ways in which the process of converting solar energy into fuels only produces hydrogen and oxygen. Semiconductor metal oxides such as ZnO and TiO2 have been generally explored for PEC water splitting because they possess high chemical stability, low cost, and proper band gap. In addition, the gold nanoparticles exhibiting distinctive localized surface plasmon resonance (ESPR) cause optical scattering and near-field enhancement to trap the incident light in the semiconductor and to improve the light absorption and effective optical path length .
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