As key enabling technology, photonics has become critical in many fields. Advances in fabrication technologies have realized photonic integrated circuits not only for telecommunication wavelengths but also in the mid-infrared, and very importantly, in the visible. The latter can strongly benefit bio- and life-science applications where visible light is very commonly used in bulky and expensive optical systems. Through PICs Robust optical functionalities can be realized cost-effectively. However, the technology was not openly available until very recently.

The pilot line, PIX4life, was established with the aid of the European Union to facilitate European R&D employing visible light PICs for visible applications, targeting mainly health and bio-science applications.

© 2018 The Author(s)

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