Metamaterials, artificially structured nanomaterials, have enabled unprecedented phenomena such as negative refraction. In this abstract, I will discuss recent development of hierarchical fabrication techniques for three-dimensional metamaterial and plasmonic structures based on ultra-accurate and precise electron-beam lithography overlay. The examples include 3D bulk negative index metamaterials, chiral metamaterials in optical frequencies and so on. Also, the recent effort of bottom-up approach using nanoparticles and self-assembled materials for isotropic 3D metamaterials will be discussed as a new direction of nanofabrication. Such unique fabrication techniques will provide the opportunity to achieve true isotropic metamaterials and the bulk properties induced from the metamaterials.
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