The distribution of secret keys with information-theoretic security, made possible by the laws of quantum mechanics, is undoubtedly one of the main achievements of quantum information processing and communications. In recent years, quantum key distribution (QKD) has been implemented in real-world conditions and commercial systems are now available. Despite this progress, however, QKD remains a relatively difficult to operate and costly technology, hindering its widespread use for high-security applications. The photonic integration of QKD devices can play a crucial role in this direction by reducing their size and cost by several orders of magnitude.
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