Metamaterials are engineered composite media with unconventional electromagnetic and optical properties. They can be formed by embedding sub-wavelength inclusions and layers as “artificial molecules” in host media, providing specific desired response functions that are not readily or easily available in nature, but physically realizable. These metamaterials have exciting characteristics in tailoring, manipulating and processing RF, microwave, IR and optical information. Devices and components formed by these media may be ultracompact and subwavelength, while supporting resonant and propagating modes. This implies that in such structures electromagnetic signals can be controlled and reshaped beyond the diffraction limits, leading to the possibility of miniaturization of elements and components, and design and control of near-field devices. This field is witnessing unprecedented development in recent years due to numerous potential applications that such materials may offer [1-5].
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