Recently, next-generation optical transceivers for 400 Gbit Ethernet (400 GbE) are studied and demonstrated as post-100G transceivers . They will be realized through a combination of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) format, and high baud rate transmission technologies. In short-range fiber communications less than 500 m, the DR-4 standardization, which adopts a 4-bundle single-mode fiber and 53.1 Gbaud with PAM-4 technology  is discussed. For the SR-16 standardization applied for 100 m short-range communications, a 16-bundle multimode fiber with 26.5 Gbaud (non-return-to-zero: NRZ) is employed .
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