Long-wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) technologies can represent an alternative solution for the development of transmitters with reduced cost, power consumption and footprint for very-high capacity metropolitan area systems. Exploiting direct modulation (DM) and advanced modulation formats, such as discrete multitone (DMT), and aggregating multiple DM-VCSELs emitting in the C-band with dense wavelength division multiplexers (WDM) in SOI chips allows to achieve multi-Tb/s transmitter module with 25 GHz granularity .
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