Many measurement applications require fast and sensitive temperature sensors that can be integrated into small and flexible probes. In minimally invasive surgery, temperature measurements are used for monitoring thermal treatments such as laser ablation and high intensity focussed ultrasound [1]. Temperature sensors also have the potential to measure blood flow using thermodilution [2], and to determine concentrations of chromophores in tissue using photothermal spectroscopy [3].

© 2019 IEEE

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