Recent advances in mid-infrared (MIR) ultrafast laser technology have enabled the generation of attosecond pulses reaching photon energies beyond 500 eV, covering the so-called “water window” [1,2]. Despite the low conversion efficiencies in this spectral region, recent demonstrations have allowed the investigation of dynamics on the femtosecond and attosecond time-scales [3,4]. This is achieved by employing x-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques around absorption edges, common at, e.g., synchrotron light sources.

© 2019 IEEE

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