Over the last decades, experiments with femto- and attosecond temporal resolution have explored the nonequilibrium physics of matter emerging under excitation with high energies or electromagnetic fields provided by intense laser pulses. At the same time, the sensitivity of ultrafast technology has increased tremendously, thus enabling a complementary development: measurements on individual electrons and even virtual photons on the elementary time scales that are intricately linked to the physics at ultrasmall length scales.

© 2019 IEEE

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