Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are drawing a fast-growing attention for their advanced functionalities in nanophotonics , photovoltaics, and novel 3D integrated circuits and flash memories. The functionalities of such nanostructures are fundamentally determined by their complex internal structure. Inevitably, any fabricated nanostructure differs from its initial design. Hence, the observed functionality differs from the expected one. It is thus critical to assess the structure of a 3D nanomaterial and verify how well it matches the design. Ideally such an inspection technique leaves no traces of the inspection in order to leave the nanostructure fully functional and ready for integration. Here, we introduce traceless X-ray tomography (TXT) as a new methodology in nanotechnology to non-destructively assess the functionality of nanostructures.
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