Strong light-matter interaction is essential for various applications in biochemical sensing, quantum information processing and magnetometry. Along with recent developments of integrated photonic devices on silicon chips, integrated on-chip waveguides have become an attractive platform for light-matter interaction. The solid-core nature of the many planar waveguides limits the degree of overlap between electromagnetic field and matter. To tackle this boundary, different solutions have been proposed, such as slot waveguides  and anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs) . They exploit either evanescent fields outside the core or strong mode concentration in the slot. However, slot modes are usually on the nanometer range thus limiting the light- matter interaction volume. On the other hand, analyte access to the core of ARROWs is through their open ends, leading to long diffusion times.
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