In recent years, internet traffic has been exponentially grown and is expected to further increase because the smart devices have spread, such as smartphones and tablet PCs, and additionally developments of 5G wireless communication using milli-wave are intensely progressed. So, ultra-fast and high-capacity networks are urgently required. Therefore, compact and highly functional photonic integrated circuits (PICs) are desirable to establish such networks especially in the access and Data Center networks. Moreover, characteristics such as low energy consumption, low cost, and stability at high temperature are essential if optical devices are to be integrated with other electronic devices such as LSIs. On the other hand, quantum dots (QDs) are expected as very promising materials for high-performance optical devices. Many groups have reported that laser diodes (LDs), semiconductor optical amplifiers, and photodiodes utilizing QD structures have displayed high performances in terms of high thermal stability, low threshold, and ultra-fast response .
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