High-power laser oscillators in the sub-100-fs pulse duration regime at megahertz repetition rates are compact and reliable alternatives to multi-stage amplifier systems. Sub-100-fs bulk oscillators based on Ti:sapphire – the working horses in ultrafast science – are currently limited to 3.5 W of average power . In comparison, sub-100-fs bulk oscillators based on other gain materials have already reached 12.5 W . However, thermal effects in the gain material are a severe challenge for further power-scaling [Fig. 1(a)].
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