Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common type of cancer in the world and the fifth highest cause of cancer-related deaths in men [1], with the highest prevalence in the United States and Western Europe. The current diagnostic gold standards are controversial and typically lead to over-diagnosis [2]. Blood tests are commonly used to check the level of the prostate specific antigen (PSA), when in fact this antigen is organ-specific but not cancer-specific. Lack of clarity over diagnosis as well as prognosis leads to large numbers of unnecessary treatments, which are highly invasive and with a range of unpleasant side effects. New methods are therefore required to improve the existing clinical outcomes at both the diagnostic and the prognostic level.

© 2017 IEEE

PDF Article


You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
Login to access OSA Member Subscription