Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common type of cancer in the world and the fifth highest cause of cancer-related deaths in men [1], with the highest prevalence in the United States and Western Europe. The current diagnostic gold standards are controversial and typically lead to over-diagnosis [2]. Blood tests are commonly used to check the level of the prostate specific antigen (PSA), when in fact this antigen is organ-specific but not cancer-specific. Lack of clarity over diagnosis as well as prognosis leads to large numbers of unnecessary treatments, which are highly invasive and with a range of unpleasant side effects. New methods are therefore required to improve the existing clinical outcomes at both the diagnostic and the prognostic level.

© 2017 IEEE

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