A beam of light propagating along the optic axis of a biaxial crystal will be transformed to a cone of light and emerge from the crystal as a hollow cylinder as predicted by W. R. Hamilton in 1832 [1] and experimentally observed shortly thereafter by H. Lloyd [2]. Recent renewed interest in the phenomenon has led to the development of a more complete theory, many aspects of which have yet to be experimentally observed.

© 2013 IEEE

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