In phonon-terminated laser crystals transition-metal ions are generally used as active ions, and the laser transition is a dd transition. Because in transition-metal ions d electrons are located in the outermost electronic shell of the ion, these ions are strongly coupled with the crystal lattice. Therefore, laser properties of the crystal are directly related to the crystal field strength. Studies of the energy levels of the ion and the interaction of the ion with the crystal lattice are helpful in understanding the laser behavior of the crystal and provide grounds for searching new laser crystals.

© 1990 Optical Society of America

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